Elementary School Students’ Attitude toward Science and Related Variables
pp. 35-52 |
Worldwide studies have revealed an important issue in that an increasing percentage of students within the X – Y age group are not interested in science. Many students, especially females, have negative feelings and attitudes toward science, which discourages them from continuing with scientific inquiries. There are limited studies related to the factors predicting school students’ attitude toward science; therefore, the purpose of this study is to determine the relationships among the seventh grade elementary students’ attitudes toward science, their learning approaches, motivational goals, science achievement and students’ nature of science (NOS) views. The questionnaires for this study were administered online to 3,598 seventh grade students in different regions and cities of Turkey. The convenience sampling method was used in this study. The correlation results revealed the positive relationship between attitude toward science and the other variables. Multiple regression analysis indicated that while students’ meaningful learning, self-efficacy, and nature of science views have a positive contribution, rote learning contributed negatively to the model. The findings also showed that parents’ income and education level had a significant effect on students’ attitude toward science.
Keywords: attitude toward science, motivational goal, self-efficacy, nature of science
Aldoplhe, F. S. G., Fraser, B. J., & Aldigre, J. M. (2003). A cross national study of learning environment and attitudes amoung junior secondary science students in Australia and Indonesia. Paper presented at the Third International Science, Mathematics and Technology Education Conference, East London, South Africa.
Aldridge, J. M., & Fraser, B. J. (2000). A cross-cultural study of classroom learning environments in Australia and Taiwan.Learning Environments Research, 3, 101–134.
Ali, M. M., Yager, R. E., Hacieminoglu, E., & Caliskan, İ. (2013). Changes in student attitudes regarding science when taught by teachers without experiences with a model professional development program. School Science and Mathematics, 113(3), 109-119.
Ames, C., & Archer, J. (1988). Achievement goals in the classroom: Student’s learning strategies and motivation processes.Journal of Educational Psychology, 80, 260-270.
Anderman, E. R., & Young A. J. (1994). Motivation and strategy use in science: Individual differences and classroom effects.Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 31, 811-831.
Archer, J., & McDonald, M. (1991). Gender roles and school subjects in adolescent girls. Educational Research, 33, 55-64.
Arısoy, N. (2007). Examining 8th grade students’ perception of learning environment of science classrooms inrelation to motivational beliefs and attitudes. Unpublished Theses in Middle East Technical University, Ankara, Turkey.
Ausubel, D.P. (1963). The psychology of meaningful verbal learning. New York: Grune & Stratton.
Azizoğlu, N., & Çetin, G. (2009). The effect of learning style on middle schools students’ motivation and attitudes towards science, and the relationships among these variables. Kastamonu Education Journal, 17(1), 171-182.
Bandura, A. (1986). Social foundations of thought and action: A social cognitive theory. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
Bandura, A. (1993). Perceived self-efficacy in cognitive development and functioning. Educational Psychologist, 28, 117-148.
BouJaoude, S. B. (1992). The relationship between high school students' learning strategies and the change in their misunderstandings during a high school chemistry course. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 29(7), 687-699.
Buehl, M. M. (2003). At the crossroads: Exploring the intersection of epistemological beliefs, motivation, and culture. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Educational Research Association, April, Chicago, IL.
Caliskan, İ. S. (2004). The effect of inquiry-based chemistry course on students' understanding of atom concept, learning approaches, motivation, self-efficacy, and epistemological beliefs. Unpuplished master thesis, The Middle East Technical University, Ankara.
Catsambis, S. (1995). Gender, race, ethnicity, and science education in the middle grades. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 32(3), 243-257.
Cavallo, A. M. L., & Schafer, L. E. (1994). Relationships between student’s meaningful learning orientation and their understanding of genetic topics. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 31(4), 393-418.
Cavallo, A. M. L. (1996).Meaningful learning reasoning ability and student’s understanding and problem of genetics topics.Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 38, 625-656.
Cavallo, A. M. L., Rozman, M., Larabee, T., Ishikawa, C. (2001). Shifts in male and female students' learning, motivation, beliefs, and scientific understanding in inquiry-based college physics course. Paper presented at the annual conference of the National Association for Research in Science Teaching, St. Louis, MO.
Cavallo, A. M. L., Rozman, M., Blickenstaff, J., & Walker , N. (2003). Learning, reasoning, motivation, and epistemological beliefs. Journal of College Science Teaching, 33, 18-23.
Cavallo, A. M. L., Rozman, M., & Potter, W. H. (2004). Gender differences in learning constructs, shifts in learning constructs, and their relationship to course achievement in a structured inquiry, yearlong collage physic course for life science majors. School Science and Mathematics, 104(6), 288-301.
Cohen, J. W. (1988). Statistical power analysis for the behavioral sciences (2nd edition). Hilsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
DeBacker, T. K., & Nelson, R. M. (2000). Motivation to learn science: Differences related to gender, class type, and ability level. Journal of Educational Research, 93(4), 245-254.
den Brok, P., Fisher, D., & Rickards, T. (2004). Predicting Australian Students’ Perceptions Of Their Teacher Interpersonal Behavior. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Educational Research Association, San Diego.
Dhindsa, H. S. & Chung, G. (2003). Attitudes and achievement of Bruneian science students. Internalational Journal of Science Education, 25, 907-922.
Dweck, C. S. (1986). Motivational processes affecting learning. American Psychologist, 41, 1040-1048.
Edmondson, K.M. (1989). The influence of students’ conceptions of scientific knowledge and their orientations to learning on their choices of learning strategy in a college introductory level biology course. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY.
Edmondson, K.M., & Novak, D.N. (1993). The interplay of scientific epistemological views, learning strategies, and attitudes of college students. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 30, 547-559.
Fraser, J. B. (1978). Development of a test of science-related attitudes, Science Education, 62(4), 509-515.
Freedman, M. P. (1997). Relationship among laboratory instruction, attitude toward science, and achievement in science knowledge. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 34, 343-357.
Garcia, T., & Pintrich, P. R. (1992). Critical thinking and its relationship to motivation, learning strategies, and classroom experiences. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Psychological Association, Washington, DC.
Greenfield, T. A. (1996). Gender, etnicity, science achievement and attitudes. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 33,901-933.
Hacieminoglu, E., Yilmaz-Tuzun, O., & Ertepinar, H. (2009). Investigating elementary students’ learning approach, motivational goals and achievement in science. Hacettepe University Journal of Education, 37, 72-83.
Hacieminoglu, E., Yilmaz-Tuzun, O., & Ertepinar, H. (2011). Middle school students’ attitude toward science in constructivist curriculum environment. International Journal on New Trends in Education and Their Implications, 2(3), 1-6.
Hacieminoglu, E., Yilmaz-Tuzun, O. & Ertepinar, E. (2012). Development and validation of nature of science instrument for elementary students. Education 3-13: International Journal of Primary, Elementary and Early Years Education, (online published). doi:10.1080/03004279.2012.671840.
Hykle, J. A. (1993, April). Template for gender-equitable science program. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the National Association for Research in Science Teaching. Atlanta, GA.
Jones, G.M., Howe, A., & Rua, M. J. (2000). Gender differences in students’ experiences, interests and attitude toward science and scientists. Science Education, 84, 180-192.
Kahle, J.B.; & Damnjanovic, A. (1997). How research help address gender equity. Research Matters- to the Science Teacher, 9703, 1-3. Available on line at http://www.narst.org/publications/research/gender2.cfm.
Kang, S., Scharmann, L. C., Noh, T., & Koh, H. (2005). The influence of students’ cognitive and motivational variables in respect of cognitive conflict and conceptual change. International Journal of Science Education, 27, 1037–1058.
Kaplan, A., & Midgley, C. (1997). The effect of achievement goals: Does level of perceived academic competence make a difference? Contemporary Educational Psychology, 22, 415-435.
Kizilgunes, B., Tekkaya, C., & Sungur, S. (2009). Modeling the relations among students’ epistemological beliefs, motivation, learning approach, and achievement. The Journal of Educational Research, 102(4), 243-255.
Klopfer, L. E. (1976). Astructure for the affective domain in the relation to science education. Science Education, 60, 299-312.
Koran, M. L., & Koran, J. J. (1984). Aptitude- treatment interaction research in science education. Journal of Research in Science Teaching 21(8), 793-808.
Lawrenz, F. P. (1976). Student perception of the classroom learning environment in biology, chemistry and physics courses.Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 13, 351– 353.
Lin, Y. G., & McKeachie, W. J. (1999). College student intrinsic and/or extrinsic motivation and learning. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED435954).
Middleton, M., & Midgley, C. (1997). Avoiding the demonstration of lack of ability: An underexplored aspect of goal orientation. Journal Educational Psychology, 89, 70-718.
Miller, L., Lietz, P., & Kotte, D. (2002). On decreasing gender differences and attitudinal changes. Factors influencing Australian and English pupils’ choice of a career in science. Psyhology, Evolution, and Gender, 4, 69- 92.
Murphy, P. K., & Alexander, P. (2000). A motivated exploration of motivation terminology. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 25, 3-53.
Newhouse, N. (1990). Implication of attitudes and behavior research for environmental conservation. The Journal of Environmental Education, 22(1), 26-32.
Novak, J. D., Ring, D. G., & Tamir, P. (1971). Interpretations of research findings in terms of Ausubel’s theory and implications for science Education. Science Education, 55(4), 483-526.
Novak, J. (1988). Learning science and the science of learning. Studies in science education, 15, 77-101.
Novak, J., Kerr, P., Donn, S., & Cobern, W. (1989).Epistemological issues in science education. Symposium presented at the Annual Conferance of the National Association for Research in Science Teaching, San Francisco, CA.
Oakes, J. (1990). Opportunities, achievement and choice: Woman and minority students in science and mathematics.Review of Research in Education, 16, 153-222.
Oh. P. S., & Yager, R. E. (2004). Development of Constructivist Science Classrooms and Changes in Student Attitudes toward Science Learning. Science Education International, 15(2), 105-113.
Osborne, J. (2003). Attitudes towards science: a review of the literature and its implications, International Journal of Science Education, 25(9), 1049-1079.
Pallant, J. (2001). The SPSS survival manual: A step-by-step guide to data analysis using SPSS for Windows. St Leonards, NSW: Allen & Unwin
Piburn, M. D., & Baker, D.R. (1993). If I were the teacher…qualitative study of attitude toward science. Science Education 77, 393-406.
Pintrinch, P., & Schunk, D. (2002). Motivation in education. Merrill Prentice Hall.
Puacharearn, P. & Fisher, D. (2004). The effectiveness of cooperative learning integrated with constructivist teaching on improving learning environments in Thai secondary schoolscience classrooms. Curtin University of Technology, Australia.
Qian, G. (1995). The role of epistemological beliefs and motivational goals in ethnically diverse high school students' learning from science text. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the national reading conference, New Orleans, LA.
Rakıcı, N. (2004). Eight grade students’ perceptions of their science learning environment and teachers’ interpersonal behavior. Unpublished thesis submitted to the graduate school of Natural and Applied Sciences of the Middle East Technical University.
Riah, H. & Fraser, B. J. (1997). Chemistry learning environment in Brunei Darusssalam’s secondary schools. In D.L. Fisher & T. Rickards (Eds.), Science, Mathematics and Technology Education and National Development: Proceedings of the Vietnam conference (pp. 108-120). Hanoi; Vietnam.
Schibeci, R. A., & Riley, J. P. (1986). Influence of students’ background and perceptions on science attitudes and achievement. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 23(3), 177-187.
Schommer, M. (1990). Effects of beliefs about the nature of knowledge on comprehension. Journal of Educational Psychology, 82, 498-504.
Schommer, M. (1993). Epistemological development and academic performance among secondary students. Journal of Educational Psychology, 85, 406-411.
Simpson, R. D., & Oliver, J. S. (1985). Attitude toward science and achievement motivation profiles of male and female science students in grades 6 through 10. Science Education, 69(4), 511-526.
Simpson, R. D., & Oliver J. S. (1990). A summary of major influences on attitude and achievemevt in science among adolescent students. Science Education, 74, 1-18.
Skaalvik, E. M. (1997). Self-enhancing and self-defeating ego orientation: Relations with task and avoidance orientation, achievement, selfperceptions, and anxiety. Journal of Educational Psychology, 89, 71–81.
Smist, J. M., Archambault, F. X., & Owens, S. V. (1994). Gender difference in attitude toward science. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Educational Research Association (New Orleans, LA, USA).
Sternberg, R. J. (1997). Thinking styles. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Tabachnick, B. G. & Field, L. S. (1996). Using multivariate statistics (3rd Ed.). New York: Harpercollins College Publishers.
Telli, S. Cakiroglu, J., & den Brok, P. (2006). Turkish secondary education students’ perceptions of their classroom learning environment and their attitude towards Biology. In D. L. Fisher & M. S. Khine(Eds.), Contemporary approaches to research on learning environments: world views (pp.517-542).
Tsai, C. C. (1998a). An analysis of Taiwanese eighth graders' science achievement, scientific epistemological beliefs and cognitive structure outcomes after learning basic atomic theory. International Journal of Science Education, 20, 413−425.
Tsai, C. C. (1998b). An analysis of scientific epistemological beliefs and learning orientations of Taiwanese eighth graders.Science Education, 82, 473−489.
Wahyudi, W. & David F. T. (2004). The status of science classroom learning environments in Indonesian lower secondary schools. Learning Environment Research, 7, 43-63.
Weinburgh, M. (1995). Gender differences in student attitudes toward science: a meta-analysis 18. of the literature from 1970 to 1991, Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 32, 387-398.
Wolfolk, A. (2004). Educational Psychology. Boston, MA, Allyn & Bacon.
Wolters, C. A., Yu, S. L., & Pintrich, P. R. (1996). The relation between goal orientation and students’ motivational beliefs and self-regulated learning. Learning and Individual Differences, 8, 211-238.
Zhang, L. (2000). University students’ learning approaches in three cultures: An investigation of Biggs’s 3P model. The Journal of Psychology, 134(1), 37-55.
|View Abstract References Full text PDF|
Circular Migration and its Impacts in the Current Stage of Globalization
Magdalena Privarova and Andrej Privara
pp. 12909-12917 |
In recent years, the concept of circular migration is increasingly getting into the center of attention among economic theorists as well as decision-makers in the field of international labor migration. In the current conditions of globalization, circular migration could solve some of the pitfalls encountered on the return migration. This paper outlines the genesis of the concept of circular migration and analyses the impacts of this phenomenon on the development of countries of origin. It also draws attention to the need of establishing mechanisms to ensure the circulating nature of migration movement. To do this, it is necessary to meet certain conditions. In this context, international cooperation on migration is a necessary condition for a “win-win-win” strategy as an important part of circular migration. The paper outlines the various forms of this cooperation.
Keywords: Circular migration, development of countries of origin, international cooperation
Ammassari, S. & Black, R. (2008). Harnessing the Potential of Migration and return to promote Development in Asia and the pacific..
Bovenkerk, F. (1974). The Sociology of return Migration: a Bibliographic Essay. Martinus Nijhoff, The Hague.
Cassarino, J.-P. (2004). Theorising Return Migration: a revisited conceptual approach to return migrants. EUI Working Papers No. 24.
Commisssion des Communautés européennes, Communication de la Commission au Parlement européen, au Conseil économique et social européen et au Comité des régions relative aux migrations circulaires et aux partenariats pour la mobilité entre l´Union européenne et les pays tiers. COM (2007) 248, Bruxelles, 16 mai 2007.
Dayton-Johnson, J. & Xenogiani, T. (2007). Immigration, développement et arbitrages entre politiques. Revue d´économie du développement, No 2.
GCIM (2005). Les migrations dans un monde interconnecté: nouvelles perspectives d´action. Rapport de la Commission mondiale sur les migrations internationales. Bruxelles.
GFMD: Rapport de la première réunion du Forum mondial sur la migration e tle développement. Bruylant, Bruxelles, 16 mai 2007.
Ghosh, B. (2009). Return Migration: Reshaping Policy Approaches. In Ghosh, B. (ed.), Return Migration: What Works?, GMF Immigration Paper Series No. 09.
Hugo, G. (1983). New Conceptual Approaches to Migration in the Context of Urbanization: A Discussion Based on Indonesian Experience. In Morrison, P.A. (ed.), Population Movements. Their Forms and Functions in Urbanization and Development, Ordina Editions, Liège.
Katseli, L., Lucas & R.E.B., Xenogiani, T. (2006). Effects of migrations on sending countries: what do we know?, OECD Research programe on Economic and Social Effects of Migration on Sending Countries, Working Paper No. 250.
Newland, K., Agunias, D., & Terrazas, A. (2008). Learning by Doing: Experiences of Circular Migration. Insight, Migration Policy Institute.
Newland, K. (2009). Circular Migration and Human Development. UNDP, Human Development Research Paper No. 42. http://www.migrationpolicy.org/pubs/newland_2009.pdf
Poutvaara, P. (2005). Public education in an integrated Europe: Studying to migrate and teaching to stay? ZEI Working Paper B 03-2005, ZEI – Center for European Integration Studies, University of Bonn.
Ushakov, D. & ,Zhmykhova, N. (2015). International migrant flows and national migration policy: Quality correlation and scenarios of interdependence (the case of European Union). Actual Problems of Economics, # 8.
|View Abstract References Full text PDF|
The Development of Discovery-Inquiry Learning Model to Reduce the Science Misconceptions of Junior High School Students
Basman Tompo, Arifin Ahmad & Muris Muris
pp. 5676-5686 |
The main objective of this research was to develop discovery inquiry (DI) learning model to reduce the misconceptions of Science student level of secondary school that is valid, practical, and effective. This research was an R&D (research and development). The trials of discovery inquiry (DI) learning model were carried out in two different classes in SMPN 2 Maros, South Sulawesi. The results of the study after two trials showed that the discovery inquiry (DI) learning model have been valid, practical, and effective. The discovery inquiry (DI) learning model is stated to be valid because the assessment of all learning components conducted by validator meets the elements of validity. It is stated to be practical because the discovery inquiry (DI) learning component is fully implemented, and the ability of teachers to manage learning is at the high category. It is stated to be effective because the misconceptions of Science student are in the medium category. The activities of students in learning are fulfilled the ideal time achievement, and the results of the students’ questionnaire give the positive respond to discovery inquiry (DI) learning. It is concluded that the discovery inquiry (DI) learning model to reduce the misconception of Science students meets the criteria of valid, practical, and effective.
Keywords: Discovery inquiry, misconceptions of science, learning model
Abdisa, G. (2012). The effect of guided discovery on students’ physics achievement. Journal Physics Education, (Online), 6(4), 193-199
Adnyani, N.W, dkk. (2013). Pengaruh strategi pembelajaran konflik kognitif terhadap penurunan miskonsepsi fisika ditinjau dari gaya kognitif siswa kelas x di SMA Negeri 1 Bebandem. Jurnal Universitas Pendidikan Ganesha
Fajar.DM dkk. (2013). Pengaruh penggunaan model pembelajaran inkuiri (inquiry learning) terhadap penurunan miskonsepsi pada materi listrik dinamis kelas X SMAN 2 Jombang. Laporan Penelitian
Ilahi, T M. (2012). Learning of discovery strategy & mental vocational skill. Jogjakarta: DIVA Press
Iriyanti.N.P et al.(2012). Identifikasi miskonsepsi pada materi pokok wujud zat siswa kelas VII SMP Negeri 1 Bawang tahun ajaran 2009/2010. Laporan Penelitian. FKIP Universitas Sebelas Maret Surakarta
Joyce.B, Weil.M, Calhoun.E. (2009). Models of teaching. Terjemahan. Edisi Kedelapan. Yogyakarta: Pustaka Pelajar
Istikomah dkk. (2013). Pengembangan perangkat pembelajaran metode discovery learning untuk pemahaman sains pada anak TK B. Laporan Penelitian. Prodi Pendidikan Dasar Program Pasa Sarjana. Universitas Negeri Semarang
Nirwana. (2013). Penggunaan model inquiry berbasis ICT untuk meningkatkan hasil belajar pada mata kuliah sejarah fisika mahasiswa Prodi Pendidikan Fisika Jurusan Pendidikan MIPA. FKIP: Universitas Bengkulu. Prosiding Seminar
Simarmata,U. (2008). Penerapan model konstruktivis dalam pembelajaran fisika di SMU dalam upaya menanggulangi miskonsepsi siswa. Jurnal Universitas Negeri Medan, ISSN:1907-7157
Sukardjo,M. dkk. (2012). Landasan pendidikan konsep dan aplikasinya. Depok: PT Rajagrafindo Persada
Suparno, P. (2005). Miskonsepsi & perubahan konsep pendidikan Fisika. Jakarta: PT Gramedia Widiasarana Indonesia
Taufik.M. (2012). Remediasi miskonsepsi mahasiswa calon guru fisika pada konsep Gaya melalui penerapan model siklus belajar (learning cycle ) 5E. Jurnal UNS Semarang
Tayubi,Y.R, (2005). Identifikasi miskonsepsi pada konsep-konsep fisika menggunakan Certainty of Response Index (CRI). Jurnal Universitas Pendidikan Indonesia. 3/XXIV/2005
Wenning.C.L, et al. (2011). Scientific Inquiry in Introductory Physics Courses. Journal Of Physics Teacher Education. 6(2).
Yamin. (2013). M. Paradigma baru pembelajaran. Jakarta: Ciputat Mega Mall Anggota IKAPI
Yunitasari.W. et al. (2013). Pembelajaran direct instruction disertai hierarki konsep untuk mereduksi miskonsepsi siswa pada materi larutan penyangga Kelas XI IPA Semester Genap SMA Negeri 2 Sragen. Jurnal FKIP UNS Surakarta
Yusnita.R et al. (2014). Pengembangan perangkat pembelajaran berbasis penemuan terbimbing (guided discovery) dengan pendekatan somatic, auditory, visual, intellectual (SAVI) pada materi pokok peluang Kelas IX SMP Tahun Pelajaran 2013/2014. Jurnal PPs Universitas Sebelas Maret Surakarta.
|View Abstract References Full text PDF|
The Climate Change Attitude Survey: Measuring Middle School Student Beliefs and Intentions to Enact Positive Environmental Change
Rhonda Christensen & Gerald Knezek
pp. 773-788 |
The Climate Change Attitude Survey is composed of 15 Likert-type attitudinal items selected to measure students’ beliefs and intentions toward the environment with a focus on climate change. This paper describes the development of the instrument and psychometric performance characteristics including reliability and validity. Data were gathered from 1576 middle school students from across the United States in 2014 to validate the instrument and establish the measurement properties of the instrument’s scales. Factor analysis revealed two stable constructs representing beliefs and intentions, which were reconfirmed through multidimensional scaling and hierarchical cluster analysis techniques. Internal consistency reliability was found to be respectable for the survey as a whole as well as the two separate scales. The Climate Change Attitude Survey was created to fill a void in the measurement of middle school students’ affective responses to the environment and climate change. Educators may find this survey useful for assessing pre- to post intervention attitude changes as well as for identifying differences in selected groups of students. Further development is targeted to include adding new constructs as well as testing the instrument with different population subgroups.
Keywords: environment, middle school students, climate change, survey instrument
Ajzen, I. (1985). From intentions to actions: A theory of planned behavior. In J. Juhl & J. Beckman (Eds.), Action control: From cognition to behavior. New York: Springer-Verlag.
Ajzen, I. (2002). Perceived behavioral control, self-efficacy, locus of control, and the theory of planned behavior. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 32(4), 665-683.
Ajzen, I., & Fishbein, M. (1980). Understanding attitude and predicting social behavior. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.
Alwin, D.F., & Krosnick, J.A. (1991). Aging, cohorts, and the stability of sociopolitical orientations over the life span.American Journal of Sociology, 97(1), 169-195.
Archer, L., DeWitt, J., Osborne, J., Dillon, J., Willis, B., & Wong, B. (2012). Balancing acts elementary school girls’ negotiations of femininity, achievement, and science. Science Education, 96(6), 967–989.
Ballantyne, R., Connell, S., & Fien, J. (2006). Students as catalysts of environmental change: A framework researching intergenerational influence through environmental education. Environmental Education Research, 12(3/4), 413-427.
Benson, J., & Clark, F. (1982). A guide for instrument development and validation. American Journal of Occupational Therapy, 36(12), 789-800.
Bialo, E. R., & Sivin-Kachala, J. (1996). The effectiveness of technology in schools: A summary of recent research. School Library Media Quarterly, 25(1), 51-57.
Boeve-de-Paw, J., & Van Petegem, P. (2010). A cross-national perspective on youth environmental attitudes. The Environmentalist, 30(2), 133-144.
Bradley, J.C., Waliczek, R.M., & Zajicek, J.M. (1999). Relationship between environmental knowledge and environmental attitude of high school students. Journal of Environmental Education, 30(3), 17-21.
Carlsson, F., Kataria, M., Krupnick, A.J., Lampi, E., Lofgren, A., Qin, P., Chung, S., & Sterner, T. (2010). Paying for mitigation: a multiple country study. Discussion Paper. Washington, DC: Resources for the Future.
Champeau, R. (1997). Environmental education in Wisconsin: Are we walking the talk? Stevens Point, WI: Wisconsin Center for Environmental Education.
Chawla, L. (1999). Life paths into effective environmental action. Journal of Environmental Education, 31(1), 15-26.
Choi, S., Niyogi, D., Shepardson, D.P., & Charusombat, U. (2010). Do earth and environmental science textbooks promote middle and high school students’ conceptual development about climate change? Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, 91(7), 889-898.
Christensen, R., & Knezek, G. (2002). Instruments for assessing the impact of technology in education. In L. Liu, L. Johnson, C. Maddux and N. Henderson (Eds.). Evaluation and Assessment in Educational Information Technology. New York, NY: The Haworth Press, Inc.
Christensen, R., & Knezek, G. (2004). Validating a Handheld Computing Self-Efficacy Scale. In R. Ferdig, C. Crawford, R. Carlsen, N. Davis, J. Price, R. Weber & D. Willis (Eds.), Proceedings of Society for Information Technology & Teacher Education International Conference 2004 (pp. 879-884). Chesapeake, VA: Association for the Advancement of Computing in Education (AACE).
Cohen, J. (1988). Statistical power analysis for the behavioral sciences (2nd ed). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
Davidson, D., & Freudenburg, W. (1996). Gender and environmental risk concerns: A review of available research.Environment and Behavior, 28(3), 302-339.
DeVellis, R.F. (1991). Scale development: Theory and applications. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
DeVellis, R.F. (2003). Scale development: Theory and applications, (2nd ed). Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
DeWaters, J., & Powers, S. (2013). Establishing measurement criteria for an energy literacy questionnaire. Journal of Environmental Education, 44(1), 38-55.
DeWaters, J., Qaqish, B., Graham, M., & Powers, S. (2013). Designing an energy literacy questionnaire for middle and high school youth. Journal of Environmental Education, 44(1), 56-78.
Dijkstra, E.M. & Goedhart, M.J. (2012). Development and validation of the ACSI: measuring students’ science attitudes, pro-environmental behaviour, climate change attitudes and knowledge. Environmental Education Research, 18(6), 733-749.
Dunn-Rankin, P., Knezek, G., Wallace, S., & Zhang, S. (2004). Scaling methods (2nd ed). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
Europeans’ Attitudes toward climate change. (2009, July). Special Eurobarometer Report. European Commission.
Fortus, D. (2014). Attending to affect (editorial). Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 51(7), 821-835.
Gardos, V., & Dodd, D. (1995). An immediate response to environmentally disturbing news and the environmental attitudes of college students. Psychological Reports, 77(3), 1121-1122.
Haney, J.J., Czeriak, C.M., & Lumpe, A.T. (1996). Teacher beliefs and intentions regarding the implementation of science education reform strands. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 33(9), 971-993.
Infographic: Attitudes toward climate change: Multiple country study. (2011). Resources for the Future.http://www.rff.org/Publications/Resources/Pages/178-Attitudes-Toward-Climate-Change.aspx
Karpiak, C.P. & Baril, G.L. (2008). Moral reasoning and concern for the environment. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 28(3), 203-208. doi:10.1016/j.jenvp.2007.12.001.
Knafo, A., & Galansky, N. (2008). The influence of children on their parents’ values. Social and Personality Psychology Compass, 2(3), 1143-1161.
Knezek, G., & Christensen, R. (1996). Validating the computer attitude Questionnaire. Paper presented to the Southwest Educational Research Association annual conference, New Orleans, Louisiana, January, 1996.
Knezek, G., Christensen, R., Tyler-Wood, T., & Periathiruvadi, S. (2013). Impact of environmental power monitoring activities on middle school student perceptions of STEM. Science Education International, 21(1), 98-123.
Lawrenz, F. (1988). Prediction of student energy knowledge and attitudes. School Science and Mathematics, 88(7), 543-549.
Le Hebel, R., Montpied, P., & Fontanieu, V. (2014). What can influence students’ environmental attitudes? Results from a study of 15-year-old students in France. International Journal of Environmental & Science Education, 9(3), 329-345.
Leiserowitz, A., Maibach, E., Roser-Renouf, C., Feinberg, G., & Howe, P. (2013). Climate change in the American mind: Americans’ global warming beliefs and attitudes in April, 2013. Yale University and George Mason University. New Haven, CT: Yale Project on Climate Change Communication.
Leppanen, J.M., Haahla, A.E., Lensu, A.M., & Kuitunen, M.T. (2012). Parent-child similarity in environmental attitudes: A pairwise comparison. Journal of Environmental Education, 43(3), 162-176.
McMillan, E.E., Wright, T., & Beazley, K. (2004). Impact of a university-level environmental studies class on students’ values.Journal of Environmental Education, 35(3), 19-28.
Meinhold, J., & Malkus, A. (2005). Adolescent environmental behaviors. Can knowledge, attitudes, and self-efficacy make a difference? Environment and Behavior, 37(4), 511-532.
Metin, M. (2010). A study on development a general attitude scale about environmental issues for students in different grade levels. Asia-Pacific Forum on Science Learning and Teaching, 11(2), 1-19.
Milfont, T.L., & Duckitt, J. (2010). The environmental attitudes inventory: A valid and reliable measure to assess the structure of environmental attitudes. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 30(1), 80-94.
Mills, L., Wakefield, J., Najmi, A., Surface, D., Christensen, R. & Knezek, G. (2011). Validating the computer attitude questionnaire NSF ITEST (CAQ N/I). In M. Koehler & P. Mishra (Eds.), Proceedings of Society for Information Technology & Teacher Education International Conference 2011 (pp. 1572-1579). Chesapeake, VA: Association for the Advancement of Computing in Education (AACE).
Musser, L.M., & Malkus, A.J. (1994). The children’s attitudes toward the environment scale. Journal of Environmental Education, 94(25), 22-26.
Peterman, K., Kermish-Allen, R., Knezek, G., Christensen, R., & Tyler-Wood, T. (2015). Measuring student career interest within the context of technology-enhanced STEM projects: A cross-project comparison study based on the Career Interest Questionnaire. (Unpublished manuscript submitted for publication).
Robertson, W.H., & Barbosa, A.C. (2015). Global climate change and the need for relevant curriculum. International Journal of Learning, Teaching and Educational Research, 10(1), 35-44.
Sarkar, M. (2011). Secondary students’ environmental attitudes: The case of environmental education in Bangladesh. International Journal of Academic Research in Business and Social Sciences, 1(3), 106-116.
Schultz, P.W., Gouveia, V.V., Cameron, L.D., Tankha, G., Schmuck, P., & Franek, M. (2005). Values and their relationship to environmental concern and conservation behavior. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 36(4), 457-475.
Sears, D.O., & Funk, C.L. (1999). Evidence of the long-term persistence of adults’ political predispositions. Journal of Politics, 61(1), 1-28.
Sheppard, B.H., Hartwick, J., & Warshaw, P.R. (1988). The theory of reasoned action: A meta-analysis of past research with recommendations for modifications and future research. Journal of Consumer Research, 15(3), 325–343.
Sinatra, G.M., Kardash, C.M., Taasoobshirazi, G., & Lombardi, D. (2012). Promoting attitude change and expressed willingness to take action toward climate change in college students. Instructional Science, 40(1), 1-17.
SPSS. (2010). IBM SPSS Statistics for Macintosh, Version 22.0. Armonk, NY: IBM Corp.
Tosunglu, C. (1993). A study on the dimension and determinants of environmental attitudes. PhD thesis, Middle East Technical University, Ankara.
Tyler-Wood, T., Knezek, G., & Christensen, R. (2010). Instruments for assessing interest in STEM content and careers.Journal of Technology and Teacher Education, 18(2), 341-363.
Weigel, R., & Weigel, R. (1978). Environmental concern: The development of a measure. Environment and Behavior, 10(1), 3-15.
Yilmaz, O., Boone, W.J., & Andersen, H.O. (2004). Views of elementary and middle school Turkish students toward environmental issues. International Journal of Science Education, 26(12), 1527-1546.
|View Abstract References Full text PDF|
Understanding Scientific Texts: From Structure to Process and General Culture
Ferhat Ensar & Muhammed Eyyüp Sallabaş
pp. 29-34 |
In this study, the historical development of experimental research on learning processes from scientific texts has been introduced. Then a detailed analysis of the main contributions of cognitive science has been provided and the theoretical developments that are considered to have had a major role in the comprehension and understanding of scientific texts have been dwelled on. Our premise is to determine how development in understanding the basics of the comprehension of scientific text has been achieved and indicate the best way to continue research in the fields in which there has been less development. For this reason, types of theoretical developments required in order to make progress within the framework of learning processes from scientific texts have been included in this analysis. Thus, a contribution will be made in terms of better interpretation of the scientific texts used in environmental and science education.
Keywords: Scientific text, expository text, comprehension, environmental education
Alpaslan, M. M., Yalvac, B., & Loving, C. C. (2015). Curriculum Reform Movements and Science Textbooks: A Retrospective Examination of 6th Grade Science Textbooks. Eurasia Journal of Mathematics, Science & Technology Education, 11(2), 207-216.
Atkinson, D. (1999). Scientific discourse in sociohistorical context: The philosophical transactions of the Royal Society of London, 1675–1975. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.
Bakhtin, M. M. (1981). The dialogic imagination. (C. Emerson & M. Holquist, Trans.). Austin: University of Texas Press.
Bakhtin, M. M. (1986). Speech genres and other late essays. (V.W. McGee, Trans.). Austin: University of Texas Press.
Berman, Ruth A. & Nir-sagiv, B. (2007). Comparing narrative and expository text construction across adolescence: A developmental paradox. Discourse Processes, 43 (2), 79-120.
Britton, B.K. & Black, J. B. (1985). Understanding expository text: From structure to process and world knowledge. In B.K. Britton & J.B. Black (Eds.). Understanding expository text: A theoretical and practical handbook for analyzing explanatory text. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
Britton, B. K., Glynn, S. M., Meyer, B. J. F. & Penland, M. J. (1982). Effects of text structure on use of cognitive capacity during reading. Journal of Educational Psychology, 74, 51-61.
Engert, K., & Krey, B. (2013). Reading Writing/Writing Reading on Epistemic Work with Scientific Texts. Zeitschrift Fur Soziologie, 42(5), 366-384
Eren, M., Bulut, M., & Bulut, N. (2015). A content analysis study about the usage of history of mathematics in textbooks in Turkey. Eurasia Journal of Mathematics, Science & Technology Education, 11(1), 53-62.
Gajria, M., Jitendra, A. K., Sood, S. & Sacks, G. (2007). Improving Comprehension of Expository Text in Students With LD: A Research Synthesis. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 40, (3), 210–225.
Gates, V. P., Duke N. K. & Martineau, J A. (2007). Learning to read and write genre-specific text: Roles of authentic experience and explicit teaching. Reading Research Quarterly, 42 (1), 8-45.
Goodwin, C. (1995). Seeing in depth. Social Studies of Science, 25, 237–274
Hahn, P., Dullweber, F., Unglaub, F., & Spies, C. K. (2014). Text mining, a method for computer-assisted analysis of scientific texts, demonstrated by an analysis of author networks. Handchirurgie Mikrochirurgie Plastische Chirurgie. 46(3), 186-191.
Hasni, A., & Potvin, P. (2015). Student’s Interest in Science and Technology and its Relationships with Teaching Methods, Family Context and Self-Efficacy. International Journal of Environmental & Science Education, 10(3), 337-366.
Kazempour, M. (2014). I Can't Teach Science! A Case Study of an Elementary Pre-Service Teacher's Intersection of Science Experiences, Beliefs, Attitude, and Self-Efficacy. International Journal of Environmental and Science Education, 9(1), 77-96.
Kelly, G. J. & Bazerman, C. (2003). How students argue scientific claims: A rhetorical semantic analysis. Applied Linguistics, 24 (1), 28-55.
Kelly, G. J., & Green, J. (1998). The social nature of knowing: Toward a sociocultural perspective on conceptual change and knowledge construction. In B. Guzzetti, & C. Hynd (Eds.), Perspectives on conceptual change: Multiple ways to understand knowing and learning in a complex world (pp. 145–181). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.
Keys, C. W. (1999). Revitalizing instruction in scientific genres: Connecting knowledge production with writing to learn in science. Science Education, 83, 115–130
Linderholm, T., Everson, M. G., van den Broek P., Mischinski, M., Crittenden, A., & Samuels, J. (2000). Effects of causal text revisions on more and less-skilled readers’ comprehension of easy and difficult texts. Cognition and Instruction, 18(4), 525-556.
McNamara, D. S. Kintsch, E, Songer, N. B. & Kintsch, W. (1996). Are good text always better? Interactions of text coherence, background knowledge, and levels of understanding in learning from text. Cognition and Instruction, 14.
Meyer, B. J. F., & Rice, G. E. (1984). The structure of text. In P. D. Pearson, R. Barr, M. L. Kamil, & P. Mosenthal (Eds.),Handbook of reading research (Vol. 1, pp. 319-351). White Plains, NY: Longman.
Morgado, J., Otero, J., Vaz-Rebelo, P., Sanjosé, V., & Caldeira, H. (2014). Detection of explanation obstacles in scientific texts: the effect of an understanding task vs. an experiment task. Educational Studies, 40(2), 164-173.
Oliveira, A. W. (2015). Reading Engagement in Science: Elementary Students’ Read-Aloud Experiences. International Journal of Environmental & Science Education, 10(3), 429-451.
Pearson, P. D., & Fielding, L. (1991). Comprehension instruction. In R. Barr, M. L. Kamil, P. Mosenthal, & P. D. Pearson (Eds.),Handbook of reading research (Vol. 2, pp. 815-860). White Plains, NY: Longman.
Scruggs, T. E., & Mastropieri, M. A. (1990). Current approaches to science education: Implications for mainstream education of students with disabilities. Remedial and Special Education, 14, 15-24.
Seidenberg, P. L. (1989). Relating text-processing research to reading and writing instruction for learning disabled students.Learning Disabilities Focus, 5 (1), 4-12.
Sjøberg, S. (2015). PISA and Global Educational Governance–A Critique of the Project, its Uses and Implications. Eurasia Journal of Mathematics, Science & Technology Education, 11(1), 111-127.
Vygotsky, L. S. (1962). Thought and language. (A. Kozalin, Trans.). Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. (Original work published in 1934).
Weaver, C. A. & Kintsch, W. (1991). Expository text. In R. Barr, M. L. Kamil, P. Mosenthal, & P. D. Pearson (Eds.), Handbook of reading research (Vol. 2, pp. 230-244). White Plains, NY: Longman.
|View Abstract References Full text PDF|
Classifying The Standards Via Revised Bloom's Taxonomy: A Comparison of Pre-Service and In- Service Teachers
Serhat Kocakaya & Nihat Kotluk
pp. 11297-11318 |
The aim of this study is (a) to investigate the usefulness of Bloom's revised taxonomy (RBT) for classification of standards, (b) to examine the differences and similarities between pre-service teachers' and in-service teachers' classification of the same standards and (c) to determine which standards are vague and broad. The 45 standards, in the Turkish 10th Grade Physics Syllabus, were categorized by the 16 participants, who were divided into two groups. The first group included eight pre-service physics and the second group included eight in-service physics teachers, in Turkey. Firstly, each participant classified the standards using RBT individually, then, they classified the standards with their group. We compared their all classification of standards. The usefulness of Revised Bloom Taxonomy for classification of standards, the differences between individually classification and the groups' and, differences between the pre-service and in- service teachers groups' classifications, (c) the standards which are broad and vague were discussed.
Keywords: Revised Bloom's Taxonomy; classifying standards; pre-service teachers; in-service teachers; physics syllabus
Amer, A. (2006). Reflections on Bloom’s revised taxonomy. Electronic Journal of Research in Educational Psychology, 4/8, 213-230
Anderson, L. W., Krathwohl, D. R., & Bloom, B. S. (2001). A taxonomy for learning, teaching, and assessing: A revision of Bloom's taxonomy of educational objectives. Allyn & Bacon.
Arı, A. (2008). Finding Acceptance of Bloom’s Revised Cognitive Taxonomy on the International Stage and in Turkey. Educational Sciences: Theory & Practice - 11(2), Spring, 767-772
Athanassiou, N., McNett, J., & Harvey, C. (2003). Critical thinking in the management classroom: Bloom’s Taxonomy. Journal of Management Education, 27, 5, 533-555
Biggs, J. and Collis, K.F. (1982). Evaluating the Quality of Learning: The SOLO Taxonomy (Structure of the Observed Learning Outcome). New York: Academic Press.
Bloom, B. S. (1956). Taxonomy of educational objectives. Vol. 1: Cognitive domain. New York: McKay, 20-24.
Borich, G. D., Tombari, M. L., & Tombari, M. L. (2004). Educational assessment for the elementary and middle school classroom. Upper Saddle River, N.J: Pearson/Merrill/Prentice Hall.
Clark, V. P., & Creswell, J. W. (2011). Designing and conducting mixed methods research. vol, 3, 93-94.
Crowe, A., Dirks, C., & Wenderoth, M.P. (2008). Biology in Bloom: Implementing Bloom’s Taxonomy to enhance students’ learning in biology. CBE Life Sciences Education, 7, 4, 368-381
Krathwohl, D. R. (2002): A Revision of Bloom's Taxonomy: An Overview, Theory Into Practice, 41:4, 212-218
Dettmer, P. (2006). New Blooms in Established Fields: Four Domains of Learning and Doing. Roeper Review, 28/2, 70-78.
Gronlund, N.E. (2004). Writing instructional objectives for teaching and assessment (7th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson.
Guilford, J. P. (1967). The nature of human intelligence. New York: McGrawHill.
Hauenstein, A. D. (1998). A conceptual framework for educational objectives. A holistic approach to traditional taxonomies. Lanham: University Press of America.
Hayes, A. F., & Krippendorff, K. (2007). Answering the call for a standard reliability measure for coding data. Communication Methods and Measures, 1, 77-89.
Kocakaya, S., & Gonen, S. (2010). Analysis of Turkish high-school physics-examination questions according to Bloom’s taxonomy. In Asia-Pacific Forum on Science Learning and Teaching (Vol. 11, No. 1, pp. 1-14).
Landis, J. R., & Koch, G. G.. (1977). The Measurement of Observer Agreement for Categorical Data. Biometrics, 33(1), 159–174. http://doi.org/10.2307/2529310
Luft, P., Brown, C. M., & Slutherin, L. J. (2007). Are you and your students bored with the benchmarks? Sinking under the standards? Then transform your teaching through transition. Teaching Exceptional Children, 39(6), 39-46.
Marzano, R. J., & Kendall, J. S. (2007). The new taxonomy of educational objectives. Thousand Oaks, California: Corwin Press.
Ministry of Education in Turkey, (TTKB). (2013). High school physics syllabus. http://ttkb.meb.gov.tr/www/ogretim-programlari/icerik/72
Näsström, G. (2009). Interpretation of standards with Bloom’s revised taxonomy: a comparison of teachers and assessment experts. International Journal of Research & Method in Education, 32(1), 39-51.
O’Neill, G., & Murphy, F. (2010) Guide to taxonomies of learning. UCD Teaching and Learning/Resources, Retrieved March 01, 2014 from http://www.ucd.ie/t4cms/ucdtla0034.pdf
Näsström, G. & Henriksson, W.(2008). Alignment of standards and assessment: A theoretical and empirical study of methods for alignment. Electronic Journal of Research in Educational Psychology, 6 (3) (2008), pp. 667–690
Noble, T. (2004). Integrating the revised Bloom’s Taxonomy with multiple intelligences: A planning tool for curriculum differentiation. Teachers College Record, 106, 1, 193-211
Patton, J.R., & Trainor, A. (2003). Using applied academics to enhance curricular reform in secondary education. In C. A. Kochhar-Bryant & D. S. Bassett (Eds.), Aligning transition and standards-based education: Issues and strategies (pp. 55-75). Arlington, VA: Division on Transition and Career Development, The Council for Exceptional Children.
Popham, W. J. (2003). Test better, teach better: The instructional role of assessment. Alexandria: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.
Porter, A. C., & Smithson, J. L. (2001). Are content standards being implemented in the classroom? A methodology and some tentative answers. In S. H. Fuhrman (Ed.), From the Capitol to the classroom. Standards-based reform in the States (pp. 60-80). Chicago: National Society for the Study of Education, University of Chicago press
Skilbeck, M. (1971). Preparing curriculum objectives, The Vocational Aspect of Education, 23:54, 1-7. Published online: 30 Jul 2007. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/03057877180000011
Tyler, R.W. (1949). Basic principles of curriculum and instruction. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press.
Webb, N. L. (2002). An analysis of the alignment between mathematics standards and assessments for three states. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Educational Research Association, April 1-5, in New Orleans, USA.
Wiggins, G., & McTighe, J. (2005). Understanding by Design (Expanded 2nd ed.). Alexandria, Virginia: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.
Vrchota, D. (2004). Touchstone award: Challenging students’ thinking with Bloom’s Taxonomy. Communication Teacher, 18- 1, 2-5.
Vosen, M., & Fink, L.S., (2008). Using Bloom’s Taxonomy to teach students about plagiarism. English Journal, 97, 6, 43-46.
|View Abstract References Full text PDF|
Marketing Mix for E-commerce
Elena V. Pogorelova, Irina V. Yakhneeva, Anna N. Agafonova & Alla O. Prokubovskaya
pp. 6744-6759 |
The relevance of the analyzed issue is caused by the need to study the process of transformation of marketing in e-commerce, as the active involvement of business organizations in the field of e-business is often accompanied by problems of applying the usual marketing tools in a virtual environment. The article seeks to identify changes in the elements of the marketing mix in e-commerce in accordance with the trend of e-business and Internet technology. The leading approach to the study of this issue is the marketing model 7P, allowing structuring the changes in a complex of marketing tools with regard to trade and information services of online stores. The results of research were: to establish the determining role of technology and information support of consumers; to identify the areas of transformation of the marketing mix in e-commerce, demonstrating the significant influence of consumers on the content of 7P and personalize the supply of goods and services. The article may be useful for online stores in case of marketing strategy development, identification of the most important elements of 7P, assessment of marketing effectiveness and optimization of marketing costs.
Keywords: Customer behavior, digital economy, e-commerce, marketing mix
Agafonova, A. N. (2014). Information Service in the Internet Economy. Moscow: Biblio-Globus, 152 p.
Baudrillard, J. (2001). The System of Things. Moscow: All-Russian Library for Foreign literature named after M. I. Rudomino, 246 p.
Booms, B. H. & Bitner, M. J. (1981). Marketing strategies and organization structures for service firms. Marketing of Services, Conference Proceedings: American Marketing Association, Illinois, 47-51.
Chaffey, D. (2007). E-Business and E-Commerce Management. Harlow: Pearson Education, 663 p.
Eiglier, P. & Langeard, E. (1976). Principes de politique marketing pour les enterprises de services. Marseille: Universite d’Aix-Marselle, 26.
Executive summary: Advertising Expenditure Forecasts. (2015). Direct access: http://www.zenithoptimedia.com/wp-content/uploads/2015/06/Adspend-forecasts-June-2015-executive-summary.pdf
Global Trust in Advertising. Winning Strategies for an Evolving Media Landscape (2015). Direct access: http://www.nielsen.com/content/dam/nielsenglobal/apac/docs/reports/2015/nielsen-global-trust-in-advertising-report-september-2015.pdf
Kalyanam, К. & McIntyre, Sh. (2002). The E-Marketing Mix: A Contribution of the E-Tailing Wars. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 30(4), 487-499.
Kelly, К. (1999) New Rules for the New Economy. New York: Penguin Group, 181 p.
Kotler, Ph. & Armstrong, G. (2010). Principles of Marketing. New Jersey Pearson Education, 637 p.
Kotlyarov, I. D. (2012). Trends in the Evolution of E-commerce. Internet Marketing, 4(70), 252-258.
Lee, J.K. & Lehto, X. (2010). E-personalization and online privacy features: the case with travel websites. Journal of Management and Marketing, 4, 122-131.
Lopsulin, S. (2016). E-commerce Market in Russia reached $ 13.9 Billion. Direct access: http://www.cnews.ru/news/top/2016-03-02_rynok_elektronnoj_kommertsii_v_rossii_dostig_13
Lovelock, Ch. H. & Wirtz, J. (2007). Services Marketing: People, Technology. New Jersey: Pearson/Prentice Hall, 648 p.
McCarthy J. & Jerome E. (1964). Basic Marketing. A Managerial Approach. Illinois: Irwin, 242 p.
Project management: the basics of professional knowledge, national requirements for professionals’ competence. (2010). Moscow: Project, PRACTICE, 250 p.
Rathmel, J. (1974). Marketing in the Service Sector. Mass: Winthrop Publishers, 232 p.
Rueter, Th. (2014). The price is right – then it's not. Direct access: https://www.internetretailer.com/2014/08/04/price-rightthen-its-not
Tapscott, D. (1999). Electronic and Digital Society: the Pros and Cons of the Era of Network Intelligence. London: INT Press, 324 p.
Veblen, T. (2011). The Theory of the Leisure Class. Moscow: Lıbrokom, 368 p.
Yakhneeva, I. V. & Podolyak, M. I. (2009). Metrics of Success: How to Assess the Results of the Internet-marketing. Internet Marketing, 3, 176-183.
|View Abstract References Full text PDF|
Teaching Listening Comprehension: Bottom-Up Approach
Anvar N. Khuziakhmetov & Galina V. Porchesku
pp. 1989-2001 |
Improving listening comprehension skills is one of the urgent contemporary educational problems in the field of second language acquisition. Understanding how L2 listening comprehension works can have a serious influence on language pedagogy. The aim of the paper is to discuss the practical and methodological value of the notion of the perception base of the language. It also highlights the importance of structural features and frequency of linguistic units in helping to determine teaching priorities in English language teaching, specifically, when training listening skills. The leading approaches to the problem of the paper are the psycholinguistic and statistical ones which help to identify practical teaching principles. The paper illustrates these approaches with the findings on the perceptually relevant features and frequency of the English words and sentences and their linguistic features. The findings are discussed in terms of their application in developing bottom-up listening skills and tested in a listening comprehension experiment. The materials of this article may be of use to those who are interested in problems of speech perception and improving the existing listening comprehension teaching techniques
Keywords: Listening comprehension; speech perception; bottom-up strategies; linguistic features; perception base; frequency
Abramov, V. Y. (2004). Mono- and bilingual mechanisms of oral speech perception: PhD Thesis. Samara: Povolzhskaya State Academy of Telecommunication and Informatics, 274 p.
Aponte-de-Hanna C. (2012, September 15) Listening strategies in the L2 classroom. College Quarterly. 15 (1). Direct access: http://collegequarterly.ca/2012-vol15-num01-winter/index.html
Baiburova, O. V. (2008). The mechanism of perception of words of different syllable type: PhD Thesis. Perm: Perm State Pedagogical University. 220 p.
Biber, D., Johanson, S., Leech, G., Conrad, S., Finegan, E. (2004). Longman Grammar of Spoken and Written English. Harlow: Longman. 204 p.
Chugaeva, T. N. (2007). Perception aspect of the sound system of the English language. Yekaterinburg-Perm: PNTs UrO RAN. 246 p.
Chugaeva, T. N. (2009). The sound system of the English language in the perception aspect: PhD Thesis. St. Petersburg: St. Petersburg State University. 145 p.
Chugaeva, T. N., Thacker. A., Baiburova, O. V., Oshchepkova, O. V., Novikov, A. V. (2005). English listening comprehension manual. Perm: Perm University. 152 p.
Delvaux, V., Huet, K., Calomme, M., Piccaluga, M., Harmegnies, B. (2015, November 17) Teaching listening in L2: A successful training method using the word spotting task. Direct access: https://www.internationalphoneticassociation.org/icphs-proceedings/ ICPhS2015/Papers/ICPHS0784.pdf
Dzhaparidze, Z. N. (1985). Perception phonetics: the main points. Tbilisi: Metsniereba, 118.
Fedotova, N. L. (2015). Methods of Russian as a second language teaching. Direct access: http://www.zlat.spb.ru/CatalogImages/File/pdf/chapters/metodika%20prepodavaniya_chapter.pdf
Frumkina, R.M. (1990). Experimental methods in Linguistics. Moscow: Soviet Entsyklodedia. 682 p.
Gilman, R. A. & Moody, L. M. (1984). What Practitioners say about Listening. Foreign Language Annals, 17, 31-34.
Govorun, S. V. (2015). Strategies of educational listening. Philology Sciences, 5 (47), 76-81.
Graham, S. (2006). Listening comprehension. System, 34, 165–182.
Grigoryeva, E. V., Leyfa, I. I., Yatsevich, L. P., Demyanenko, M. A., Makovey, N. V., Pavlushkina, T. V. & Masalimova, A. R. (2015). Designing technology of English language teaching content based on international component. Review of European Studies, 7 (1), 123-129.
Gutman, E. V., Masalimova, A. R., Shaidullina, A. R., Nizamieva, A. M. & Mukhamadieva, A. H. (2014). Foreign language discipline integrative potential in the students’ research competence development. American Journal of Applied Sciences, 11, 1099-1103.
Howard, J. & Major, J. (2004, October 9) Guidelines for designing effective English language teaching materials. Seoul, South Korea. Direct access: http://www.paaljapan.org/resources/proceedings/PAAL9/pdf/Howard.pdf.
Hulstijn, J.H. (2003). Connectionist models of language processing and the training of listening skills with the aid of multimedia software. Computer Assisted Language Learning, 16 (5), 413-425.
Hunsaker, R. A. (1990). Understanding and developing the skills of oral communication. Englewood, Morton Press. 184 p.
Karimvand, P. N. (2011). Psycholinguistic Perspectives on Comprehension in Second Language Acquisition. Journal of Language Teaching and Research, 2 (6), 1268-1273.
Kasevich, V. B. (2010). Speech perception. Philosophy of the language. Perm: Perm Scientific Centre URo RAN, 28-32.
Khaleeva, I. I., (1989). The theoretical basis of teaching foreign language comprehension. Moscow: Vysshaya Shkola. 238 p.
Krause, M. (2002). The dynamics of the mechanism of the word identification under different conditions of foreign language learning. Minich: Verlag Otto Sagner. 173 p.
Leech, G. (2001, April 23) The Role of Frequency in ELT. Direct access: http://www.lancaster.ac.uk/fass/doc_library/linguistics/leechg/leech_2001.pdf
Lopatina, O. V., Borisov, A. M., Leyfa, I. I., Galimzyanova, I. I., Yatsevich, L. P., Demyanenko, M. A. & Masalimova, A.R. (2015). Role of foreign language teacher shaping students’ research skills. Asian Social Science, 11 (4), 135-140.
Masalimova, A. R., Porchesku, G. V. & Liakhnovitch, T. L. (2016). Linguistic Foundation of Foreign Language Listening Comprehension. International Electronic Journal of Mathematics Education, 11(1), 123-131.
Mendelsohn, D. (1994). Learning to listen: a strategy based approach for the second language learner. California: Dominie Press. 149 p.
Mendelsohn, D. (1998). Teaching Listening. Annual Review of Applied Linguistics, 18, 81-101.
Miller, G. A. & Selfridge, J. A. (1950). Verbal context and the recall of meaningful material. American Journal of Psychology, 63, 176-175.
Porchesku, G. V. (2013). The structure of the English sentence in the perception aspect: PhD Thesis. Nizhny Novgorod, Kirov: VSHU. 195 p.
Richards, J. C. (2008). Teaching Listening and Speaking. Cambridge University Press. 337 p.
Sekerina, I. A. (2006). Method of event-related brain potentials in experimental psycholinguistics. Topics in the study of language, 3, 22-45.
Shcherba, L. V. (1974). Teaching foreign languages at secondary school: general problems of teaching methods. Edited by E. V. Rakhmanova. Moscow. Vysshaya Shkola. 111 p.
Shtern, A. S. (1992). Perception aspect of speech activity: experimental research. St. Petersburg: St.Petersburg University. 236 p.
Slater, J., Kraus, N. (2015). The role of rhythm in perceiving speech in noise. Cognitive Processing, 17(1), 210 p.
Tsarevskaya, I. V. & Litovchenko, L. N. (2015, May 22) To the question of listening in learning a foreign language in non-linguistic university. Retrieved from http://www.science-education.ru/ru/article/view?id=21713
Vandergrift, L. (2009, October, 17) Listening: Theory and practice in modern foreign language competence. Retrieved from https://www.llas.ac.uk/resources/gpg/67
Vandergrift, L. & Goh, C. M. (2012). Teaching and learning second language listening: metacognition in action. New York: Routledge. 315 p.
Ventsov, A. V. & Kasevich, V. B. (1994). Problem of speech perception. St. Petersburg: St. Petersburg university. 232 p.
Zalevskaya, A. A. (1988). Text comprehension: psycholinguistic approach. Kaliningrad: Kalin. 95 p.
Zinder, L. R. & Shtern, A. S. (1972). Factors which influence the perception of a word. Proceedings of IV Symposium on Psycholinguistics and Communication Theory, 1, 149-159.
|View Abstract References Full text PDF|
An Analysis of the Readiness and Implementation of 2013 Curriculum in The West Part of Seram District, Maluku Province, Indonesia
Dominggus Rumahlatu, Estevanus K. Huliselan &Johanis Takaria
pp. 5662-5675 |
The changes of curriculum by government always generate pros and cons endlessly. Similarly, the implementation of 2013 Curriculum, which has been established by the government, makes most of the school educators throughout Indonesia including West Seram district try hard to implement the curriculum. Given that there are a lot schools in the West part of Seram District which are located in remote areas, it is necessary to analyze the readiness of the implementation of the 2013 curriculum in the west part of Seram district, Maluku province, Indonesia to determine the readiness of the students, teachers, and even schools in the implementation of 2013 curriculum. This is a descriptive research which focused on the readiness and implementation of the 2013 curriculum in elementary schools (SD/MI), junior high schools (SMP/MTS), and senior high schools (SMA/MA) at the west part of Seram district of Maluku province. The data were collected using a questionnaire containing seven indicators. The results of this research show that the students and the teachers in West part of Seram district regency are ready to implement the 2013 curriculum. Even, there have been some schools that have implemented the curriculum. However, there are still some inhibiting factors in the implementation of 2013 Curriculum in West part of Seram district namely the lack of handbooks for teachers and students, the mental readiness of teachers and students which are not yet optimally prepared, and the dissemination that has not reached all schools.
Keywords: 2013 Curriculum (K-13), readiness level, implementation level
BPS Maluku. (2013). Maluku Dalam Angka 2013 (Maluku in numbers 2013). BPS: Ambon
Fadjar, A. M. (2002). Keputusan Menteri Pendidikan Nasional Republik Indonesia Tentang Kurikulum Inti Pendidikan Tinggi (The Decree of the Minister of National Education of the Republic of Indonesia on the core curriculum of High Education). (Online), http://www.fti.itb.ac.id/wp-content/uploads/2015/06/Kepmendiknas-045-Tahun-2002-tentang-Kurikulum-Inti-PT.pdf, accessed on March 20, 2014.
Farisi, M. I. (2013). Kurikulum Rekonstruksionis dan Implikasinya terhadap Ilmu Pengetahuan Sosial: Analisis Dokumen Kurikulum 2013 (reconstruction of curriculum and its implication on social science: document analysis of 213 curriculum). Paedagogia Jurnal Penelitian Pendidikan Jilid 16, No.2:144-165
Febriya, R. W., Nuryono, W. (2014). Survei Tentang Persepsi dan Kesiapan Konselor Terhadap Bimbingan dan Konseling Berdasarkan Kurikulum 2013 di SMA Surabaya Selatan (Survey on Perception and Readiness of counselor on guidance and counseling Based on the 2013 Curriculum in senior high school in South Surabaya). Jurnal BK. UNESA Volume 04, No. 03: 1-10.
Gershon, W. S. (2011). Introduction Towards a Sensual Curriculum. Journal of Curriculum Theorizing Volume 27, No. 2: 1-16
Gultom, S. (2014). Materi Pelatihan Implementasi Kurikulum 2013 untuk Guru (2013 Curriculum implementation training materials for Teachers 2013). Badan Pengembangan Sumberdaya Manusia Pendidikan dan Kebudayaan, Penjamin Mutu Pendidikan dan Kebudayaan: Jakarta.
Hasibuan, M., Wisyaiswara F., (2013). Paradigma Tugas Guru Dalam Kurikulum 2013 (The Paradigm of teacher duties in 2013 Curriculum). Kementrian Agama: Sumatera Utara (hal. 1-5)
Hendry, P. M., Winfield. A. G. (2013). Bringing Out the Dead: Curriculum History as Memory. Journal of Curriculum Theorizing 29(1), 1-24
Hubball, H, dan Burt, H. (2004).An Integrated Approach to Developing and Implementing Learning-centred Curricula.International Journal for Academic Development, 9(1)
Kemenag. (2013). Petunjuk Teknis Implementasi Kurikulum 2013 Bagi Guru Madrasah. Pelatihan Implementasi Kurikulum 2013 (technical directions of the implementation of 2013 curriculum for Madrasah teachers). (online), http://madrasah.kemenag.go.id/files/ptk/Juknis%20Implementasi%20Kurikulum%202013%20TA%202014%20(Isi).pdf, accessed on February 2013.
Kemendikbud. (2012). Dokumen Kurikulum 2013 (document of 2013 curriculum). (online), http://kangmartho.com , accessed on February 2013
Kemendikbud. (2013). Pengembangan Kurikulum 2013 (2013 Curriculum development). Kementrian Pendidikan dan Kebudayaan: Indonesia
McDermott, M. (2011). Curriculum of The Eye/I. Journal of Curriculum Theorizing Volume 27, No. 2: 130-142.
Miswad, N. Dantes, A.A.I.N. Marhaeni. (2013). The Implementation Analisis of Teachers’ Teaching Responsibility Fulfillment on The Nurturant Effect on Religion Education of Students. e-Journal Program Pascasarjana Universitas Pendidikan Ganesha Jurusan Pendidikan Dasar (Volume 3 Tahun 2013): 2-11
Muflihah, U. M. (2013). Manajemen Sarana Prasarana Dalam Meningkatkan Proses Pembelajaran di MTsN Sleman Kab. Sleman di Maguwaharjo Yogyakarta (Infrastructure Management in Improving Learning Process in MTsN Sleman district. Sleman in Yogyakarta Maguwaharjo) (Thesis). UIN Sunan Kalijaga: Yogyakarta.
Mursid, R. (2013). Pengembangan Strategi Pembelajaran Melalui Peningkatan Kompetensi Guru Menyongsong Kebijakan Kurikulum 2013 (developing learning strategies through the improvement of teachers’ competence commemorating the 2013 curriculum policies). Prosiding Seminar Nasional. Program Pasca Sarjana UNJ.
Sahiruddin. (2013). The Implementation of The 2013 Curriculum and The Issues of English Language Teaching and Learning in Indonesia. The Asian Conference on Language Learning 2013 Official Conference Proceding: Osaka, Japan.
Sariono.. Kurikulum: Kurikulum Generasi Emas (2013 Curriculum: Golden Age Curriculum). E-Journal Dinas Pendidikan Kota SurabayaVol. 3: 1-8.
Sholikhah, A. N., Masduki. (2014). Analisis Kesiapan Guru dalam Mengimplementasikan Kurikulum 2013 pada Pembelajaran Matematika (Analysis of Teacher Readiness in Implementing the 2013 Curriculum in Mathematics Learning. Naskah Publikasi Universitas Muhammadiyah: Surakarta
Sumei, J. Budiono, D., Kuntjoro, S. (2014). Evaluasi Implementasi Kurikulum 2013 Pada Pembelajaran Biologi SMA Kabupaten Lamongan (Evaluation of the implementation of 2013 Curriculum in Biology learning if senior High school in Lamongan District). Journal Bioedu Volume 3, No. 3: 536-541
Supangat, Y. (2013). Karakteristik dan tujuan Kurikulum 2013 (Characteristics and objectives of 2013 Curriculum). (online), https://sites.google.com/site/webipssmpdkijakarta/in-thenews/karakteristikdantujuankurikulum2013, accessed on 28 February 2013.
Ummah, K, dkk. (2013). The Math Teacher Competency Analysis Based Perceptions Of Students. Jurnal Pendidikan Matematika STKIP PGRI Sidoarjo Vol.1, No.1.
|View Abstract References Full text PDF|
How Do Turkish Middle School Science Coursebooks Present the Science Process Skills?
pp. 829-843 |
An important objective in science education is the acquisition of science process skills (SPS) by the students. Therefore, science coursebooks, among the main resources of elementary science curricula, are to convey accurate SPS. This study is a qualitative study based on the content analysis of the science coursebooks used at middle schools. In the present study, 653 science activities presented in 10 Turkish science coursebooks used for teaching science at the 5th to 8th grade were analyzed. The findings show that activities in the coursebooks are in the planning and starting skill level of SPS. The overall investigation of the science coursebooks revealed that the SPS recommended in science curriculums are not reflected in the science coursebooks used in middle schools. Skills like variables determination and controlling-changing variables are either included at the lowest rates or not at all in the science coursebooks employed. In addition, the representation of each skill varies according to the grade, publisher, and unit.
Keywords: science process skills, science coursebooks, science activities, middle school
Ağgül Yalçın, F. (2011). İlköğretim 8. sınıf fen ve teknoloji öğretmen kılavuzu “maddenin yapısı ve özellikleri” ünitesinin bilimsel süreç becerileri açısından değerlendirilmesi. İlköğretim Online, 10(1), 378-388.
Aktamış, H., & Ergin, Ö. (2008). The Effect of scientific process skills education on students’ scientific creativity, science attitudes and academic achievements. Asia-Pacific Forum on Science Learning and Teaching, 9(1), 1-21.
American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) (1993). Benchmarks for science literacy. New York: Oxford University Press.
Anderson, R. D. (2002). Reforming science teaching: what research says about inquiry. Journal of Science Teacher Education, 13(1), 1-12.
Ango, M. L. (2002). Mastery of science process skills and their effective use in the teaching of science: An educology of science education in the Nigerian context. International Journal of Educology, 16(1), 11–30.
Aslan Efe, H., Efe, R., & Yücel, S. (2012). Ortaöğretim biyoloji ders kitaplarında yer alan etkinliklerin bilimsel süreç becerileri açısından analizi. Mehmet Akif Ersoy Üniversitesi Eğitim Fakültesi Dergisi, 12(24), 1-20.
Aziz, M. S., & Zain, A. N. Md. (2010). The inclusion of science process skills in Yemeni secondary school physics textbooks.European Journal of Physics Education, 1(1), 44-50.
Bağcı Kılıç, G. (2003). Üçüncü uluslararası matematik ve fen araştırması (TIMSS): Fen öğretimi, bilimsel araştırma ve bilimin doğası. İlköğretim Online, 2(1), 42-51.
Bağcı Kılıç, G., Haymana, F., & Bozyılmaz, B. (2008). İlköğretim fen ve teknoloji dersi öğretim programının bilim okuryazarlığı ve bilimsel süreç becerileri açısından analizi. Eğitim ve Bilim, 33(150), 52-63.
Beaumont-Walters, Y., & Soyibo, K. (2001) An analysis of high school students' performance on five integrated science process skills. Research in Science & Technological Education, 19(2), 133-145.
Bowen, G. M., & Roth, W-M. (1999). "Do-able" questions, covariation and graphical representation: do we adequately prepare preservice science teachers to teach inquiry? Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the National Association for Research in Science Teaching, Boston.
Bowen, G. M., & Roth, W.-M. (2005). Data and graph interpretation practices among preservice science teachers. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 42(10), 1063-1088.
Brotherton, P. N., & Preece, P. F. W. (1995). Science process skills: their nature and interrelationships. Research in Science & Technological Education, 13(1), 5-11.
Bybee, R. W., & DeBoer, C. E. (1993). Research on goals for the science curriculum. In D. Gabel (Ed.), Handbook of research on science teaching and learning (pp. 357-387). New York: National Science Teachers Association.
Chabalengula, V. M., Mumba, F., & Mbewe, S. (2012). How pre-service teachers’ understand and perform science process skills. Eurasia Journal of Mathematics, Science & Technology Education,8(3), 167-176.
Chiappetta, E. L., & Fillman, D. A. (2007). Analysis of five high school biology textbooks used in the united states for inclusion of the nature of science. International Journal of Science Education, 29(15), 1847-1868.
Colvill, M., & Pattie, I. (2002). Science skills: the building blocks for scientific literacy. Investigating: Australian Primary & Junior Science, 18(3), 20-22.
Dökme, İ. (2005). Milli eğitim bakanlığı (MEB) ilköğretim 6. sınıf fen bilgisi ders kitabının bilimsel süreç becerileri yönünden değerlendirilmesi. İlköğretim Online, 4(1), 7-17.
Germann, J. P, Aram, R., & Burke, G. (1996). Identifiying patterns and relationships among the responses of seventh grade students to the science process skills of designing experiments. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 33 (1), 79-99.
Güneş, M. H., Çeliker, D., & Gökalp, M. (2009). İlköğretim I. Kademedeki Yeni Fen ve Teknoloji Ders Kitapları Konusunda Sınıf Öğretmenlerinin Görüşleri. Ç.Ü. Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü Dergisi, 17 (3), 193-210.
Harlen, W. (1999). Purposes and procedures for assessing science process skills. Assessment in education. Principles, Policy & Practice, 6 (1), 129-146.
Hazır, A., & Türkmen, L. (2008). İlköğretim 5. sınıf öğrencilerinin bilimsel süreç beceri düzeyleri. Selçuk Üniversitesi Ahmet Keleşoğlu Eğitim Fakültesi Dergisi, 26, 81-96.
Huppert, J., Lomask, S. M., & Lazarowitz, R. (2002). Computer simulations in the high school: Students' cognitive stages, science process skills and academic achievement in microbiology. International Journal of Science Education, 24(8), 803-821.
Kahveci, A. (2010). Quantitative analysis of science and chemistry textbooks for indicators of
reform: a complementary perspective. International Journal of Science Education, 32(11), 1495-1519.
Koray, Ö., Bahadır, H., & Köksal, M. S. (2007). Bilimsel süreç becerilerinin 10. ve 11. sınıf kimya ders kitapları ve kimya ders müfredatında temsil edilme durumları. SAÜ Eğitim Fakültesi Dergisi, 14, 59-68.
Lumbantobing, R. (2004). Comparative study on process skills in the elementary science curriculum and textbooks between Indonesia and Japan. Bulletin of the Graduate School of Education, Hiroshima University. Part. II, Arts and Science Education, 53, 31-38.
Marshall, C., & Rossman, G. B. (1999). Designing qualitative research (3rd ed.). London: Sage Publications.
Martin, D. J. (1997). Elementary science methods: A constructivist approach. (Eds: Erin J. O’conner & Timothy Coleman). Delmar Publishers: New York.
Miles, M. B., & Huberman, M. A. (1994). An expanded sourcebook qualitative data analysis. London: Sage.
Ministry of National Education (MoNE). (2005). İlköğretim fen ve teknoloji dersi (4. ve 5. sınıflar) öğretim programı. Talim ve Terbiye Kurulu Başkanlığı, Ankara.
Ministry of National Education, (MoNE). (2006). İlköğretim fen ve teknoloji dersi (6, 7 ve 8. sınıflar) öğretim programı. Talim ve Terbiye Kurulu Başkanlığı, Ankara.
Ministry of National Education (MoNE). (2012). 12 Yıl zorunlu eğitim sorular cevaplar.
http://www.meb.gov.tr/duyurular/ duyurular2012/12yil_soru_cevaplar.pdf (Retrieved February 15, 2014)
Ministry of National Education (MoNE). (2013). İlköğretim kurumları (İlkokullar ve Ortaokullar) fen bilimleri dersi (3, 4, 5, 6, 7 ve 8. sınıflar) öğretim programı, Talim ve Terbiye Kurulu Başkanlığı, Ankara.
Monhardt L., & Monhardt, R. (2006). Creating a context for the learning of science process skills through picture books.Early Childhood Education Journal, 34(1), 67-71.
Ogan-Bekiroğlu, F. (2007). To what degree do the currently used physics textbooks meet the expectations? Journal of Science Teacher Education, 18, 599-628.
Ongowo, R. O., & Indoshi, F. C. (2013). Science process skills in the Kenya certificate of secondary education biology practical examinations. Creative Education, 4(11), 713-717.
Özgelen, S. (2012). Students’ science process skills within a cognitive domain framework. Eurasia Journal of Mathematics, Science & Technology Education, 8(4), 283-292.
Padilla, M.J. (1990). The science process skills (Research matters-to the science teacher No. 9004). Retrieved from National Association of Research in Science Teaching. http://www.narst.org/publications/research/skill.cfm. 03.06.2015
Rezba, R. J., Sprague, C. R. , McDonnough, J. T. & Matkins, J. J. (2007). Learning and assessing science process skills. Kendall, Hunt Publishing Company: Iova.
Rillero, P. (1998). Process skills and content knowledge. Science activities. Classroom Projects and Curriculum Ideas, 35(3), 3-4.
Saat, R. M. (2004).The acquisition of integrated science process skills in a web‐based learning environment. Research in Science & Technological Education, 22(1), 23-40.
Saban, Y., Aydoğdu, B., & Elmas, R. (2014). 2005 ve 2013 fen Bilgisi öğretim programlarının 4. ve 5. sınıf düzeylerinin bilimsel süreç becerileri açısından karşılaştırılması. Mehmet Akif Ersoy Üniversitesi Eğitim Fakültesi Dergisi, 32, 62-85.
Scharmann, L. C. (1989). Development of science process skill instruction. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 26(8), 715-726.
Settlage, J. & Southerland, S. A. (2007). Teaching science to every child: using culture as a starting point. New York: Routledge.
Soyibo, K. (1998). An assessment of Caribbean integrated science textbooks’ practical tasks.
Research in Science & Technological Education, 16(1), 31–41.
Şen, A. Z., & Nakiboğlu, C. (2014). 9. Sınıf kimya, fizik, biyoloji ders kitaplarının bilimsel süreç becerileri açısından karşılaştırılması. Türk Fen Eğitimi Dergisi, 11(4), 63-80.
Tan, M., & Temiz, B. K. (2003). Fen öğretiminde bilimsel süreç becerilerinin yeri ve önemi. Pamukkale Üniversitesi Eğitim Fakültesi Dergisi, 1(13), 89-101.
Temiz, B. K. (2001). Lise 1.sınıf fizik dersi öğretim programının öğrencilerin bilimsel süreç becerilerini geliştirmeye uygunluğunun incelenmesi. Unpublished master dissertation, Gazi University, Ankara.
Tyson, H. (1997). Overcoming structural barriers to good textbooks. Paper presented at the meeting of the National Education Goals Panel, retrieved June 4, 2015 from http://govinfo.library.unt.edu/negp/reports/tyson.htm
Yıldırım, A., & Şimşek, H. (2006). Sosyal bilimlerde nitel araştırma yöntemleri (6. Baskı). Ankara: Seçkin Kitabevi.
Yıldız Feyzioğlu, E., & Tatar, N. (2012). Fen ve teknoloji ders kitaplarındaki etkinliklerin bilimsel süreç becerilerine ve yapısal özelliklerine göre incelenmesi. Eğitim ve Bilim, 37(164), 108-125.
Yılmaz Senem, B. (2013). Content analysis of 9th grade physics curriculum, textbook, lessons with respect to science process skills. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, The Middle East Technical University, Ankara.
Zeitler, W. R. (1981). The influence of the type of practice in acquiring process skills. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 18(3), 189–197.
|View Abstract References Full text PDF|