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Puppets and Experiments as a Conservation Tool for First Grade Students
Oscar E. Quiros
pp. 219-228 | Article Number: ijese.2019.019
This paper discusses the experience of promoting environmental conservation using both puppets and simple hands-on experiments for first-grade students in rural Southwestern Costa Rica. Twenty eight college students wrote puppet plays, designed and built the puppets and performed the plays as well as monitored the science experiments. The experiments attempted to illustrate certain natural phenomena related to the issues performed in the plays. A total of 334 seven-year-old students from 19 elementary schools participated in 2016 and 2017. College students recorded in a log their observations and responses from direct questions to children, based on a questionnaire. A linear regression analysis was used to establish correlations. The analysed data showed that children had a much better understanding about nature and the importance of protecting it after both the plays and the experiments were conducted in sequence.
Keywords: environmental education, conservation, puppetry, first grade, science, Costa Rica
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The Implementation of Project-based Learning and Guided Inquiry to Improve Science Process Skills and Student Cognitive Learning Outcomes
Muhammad Nasir, Rini Fakhrunnisa, & Luvia Ranggi Nastiti
pp. 229-238 | Article Number: ijese.2019.020
The aim of this research is to analyze the student’s science process skills and cognitive learning outcomes in implementing project-based learning and guided inquiry. The design used is quasi-experimental design. Sampling technique is matching pretest-posttest comparison group design. Data are analyzed using t-test and N-Gain. The result shows that it is statically differences between project-based learning and guided inquiry toward students’ science process skills (sig. 0.022 < 0.05) and cognitive learning outcomes (sig. 0.013 < 0.05). Project-based learning is more effective than a guided inquiry to increase the student’s science process skills and cognitive learning outcomes. Based on this research result, the teacher should be implemented the project-based learning to improve student’s science process skills and cognitive learning outcomes.
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Cities under Participatory Construction: Scale, Dynamics, and Constraints of Participatory Budgeting
Agnieszka Kurdyś-Kujawska, Grzegorz Kwiatkowski, & Ove Oklevik
pp. 251-267 | Article Number: ijese.2019.022
Participatory budgeting (PB) is a means for city residents to have direct input into how and where public funds should be spent to address community needs. This paper examines the practice of PB within the context of post-socialist cities. Specifically, it focuses on scale, dynamics, and constraints of PB in all Polish cities with province capital status. First, literature on PB was synthesized. Second, documentary research was mobilized to provide source material infused with empirically grounded insights to aid the understanding of the practice of PB within the chosen context. The findings show great diversity in the financial scale, organization, and outcomes of PB in Poland. Furthermore, the study reveals three constraints that may hamper further development of PB: (1) lack of a legal basis of PB in the Polish legal system; (2) inadequate transparency of the project pre-selection procedure, including a lack of defined objective evaluation criteria; and (3) too much influence of local authorities on the selection of projects to be implemented. Against this background, clear-cut actions are outlined to improve the functioning of PB in Poland.
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Entry Level Capability of Newly Qualified Science and Technology Teachers into the Teaching Profession
Paul Nnanyereugo Iwuanyanwu
pp. 269-279 | Article Number: ijese.2019.023
This study involved both instructional tool and learning tasks used for examining the entry level capability of newly qualified science and technology teachers (henceforth, NQSTTs). Utilizing a quasi-experimental design, the study included 106 NQSTTs, experimental group (N = 54) and control group (N = 52) exposed to a three-month professional qualifying examination (PQE) program. Instruments such as Science Achievement Test (SAT), Technology Achievement Test (TAT), Integrated Science, Technology and Society Test (ISTST) and Micro-teaching Practice were used to measure the NQSTTs’ entry level capability. All tests had versions of pretest and posttest and were administered to both groups at the start, and at the end of the study. Significant changes in teachers’ entry level capability were identified through repeated measures ANOVA tests run for each test at the significant level of .05. Results indicated that teachers’ entry level capability relatively improved than expected, most probably as a result of the type of preparation they received. It is hoped that these findings may help to show interesting differences in programs aimed at preparing teachers for certification/induction. Didactic implications for science and technology education are discussed.
Keywords: science, technology, society, teachers, process skills, traits, ability
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Distinguishing Topic-Specific Professional Knowledge from Topic-Specific PCK: A Conceptual Framework
pp. 281-296 | Article Number: ijese.2019.024
The purpose of this conceptual paper is to present a review of the literature on pedagogical content knowledge (PCK) that explores and critically analyzes the conceptualization of topic-specific science PCK in the light of previous discussions and research on science PCK as well as the new developments. I investigated the literature on PCK that has contributed to the conceptualization of PCK since its introduction by Shulman (1986) to understand topic-specific pedagogical content knowledge (TSPCK) and distinguish it from topic-specific professional knowledge (TSPK). This paper provides a conceptual framework to further elaborate on the concept of TSPK by identifying TSPK components and presenting possible ways for these components to emerge or develop. This framework viewed TSPCK as a combination of knowledge and skills, where (1) knowledge is represented by the development of TSPCK components as a result of (a) interpretation, (b) integration, or (c) specification and skills are represented by (2) integration of TSPK components by individual teachers to help students understand a science topic.
Keywords: pedagogical content knowledge (PCK), science teachers’ professional knowledge, Topic-Specific PCK (TSPCK), Topic-Specific Professional Knowledge (TSPCK)
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De-black-boxing Learners: What is Occurring in their Minds When they Answer Multiple-choice Questions that Assess their Understanding of Biological Concepts?
Dimitrios Schizas, Dimitris Psillos, & Penelope Papadopoulou
pp. 297-310 | Article Number: ijese.2019.025
Many biology textbooks and test banks accompanying these textbooks have begun to classify multiple-choice questions (MCQs) according to Bloom’s taxonomy. Teachers, however, encounter significant difficulties in adjusting their assessment practices to the low performance of students and in helping them enhance their respective cognitive skills because the mental processes that Bloom’s categories indicate are captured from the perspective of learners’ mental behaviour or observable learning outcomes; learners are treated more as black boxes and less as input-state-output subjects, as constructivist learning theories suggest. Thus, interior mental facts and processes occurring in their minds remain unexplored. The purpose of the present paper is to open learners’ black boxes and reveal the specific mental facts and processes occurring in their cognitive structures when answering Bloom’s classified MCQs, whose subject matter content concerns biological concepts. To accomplish this purpose, we associate knowledge drawn from the philosophy of biology with the conceptual nature of Bloom’s lower-level categories such as ‘knowledge’ and ‘comprehension’. This knowledge involves types of statements and arguments that can be found in scientific language, along with different and interrelated aspects of biological concepts that learners should know if they are to understand declarative knowledge. The implications of our epistemological analysis for the nature of MCQ distractors and the notion of misconceptions will also be discussed.
Keywords: Bloom’s Taxonomy, misconceptions, multiple-choice questions, nature of science, philosophy of science
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The Design and Use of Dual Modules System for Domestic Animals Monitoring (DMS)
Fina Otosi Faithpraise, Effiong Okokon Obisung, & Joseph Offiong
pp. 311-323 | Article Number: ijese.2019.026
This article highlight the result of needs assessment studies that evaluates a sustainability based technological approach on combating the crises between cow herders and agricultural farmers, by the use of a monitoring system which involves dual modules technology. Dual modules implies a design that comprises of an off shelf GPS (global positioning system) and GSM (global system for mobile communication) receiver modules. The low cost GPS and GSM modules were chosen for this design due to the inbuilt integrated antenna found in the modules and the output GPS positional data with an enabled standard serial National Marine Electronics Association (NMEA) protocol as well as a standard AT command use in GSM technology. At any moment a quarry in form of a code (@C1) is texted to the SIM number embedded in the SIM card slot of the GSM module, a corresponding response indicating the exact location of the cow in longitude and latitude is transmitted via SMS to the owner’s mobile phone number which was initially programmed (configured) into the microcontroller firmware. The GSM module provided with SIM card uses the same communication protocol and processes of a regular day to day mobile phone technology. The system is configured to be attached on the neck of the animal for easy monitoring and tracking as far as 200m from its exact position at any given time. The article revealed that major herders and farmers issues will be minimize once the movement of domestic animals are monitored to avoid the destruction of lives, farmland and properties. This research provide insight into major community concerns and the Nigerian nation at large.
Keywords: domestic animals, destruction of life, dual modules, exact position, wondering about
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