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Population versus sampling procedures: implications from epidemiological studies
Matias Noll, Cláudia Tarragô Candotti, Bruna Nichele da Rosa, Flávio Antônio de Souza Castro, Jefferson Fagundes Loss
pp. 1-10 | Article Number: ijese.2018.001
Since sampling procedures are closely related to scientific validity, it is necessary to understand the influence of sampling procedures on obtained research results to ensure that epidemiological studies provide reliable information for planning actions designed to ensure quality in promoting health. Therefore, we verified whether the results regarding postural habits provided by diverse sampling procedures are consistent with those obtained from an entire population. A data bank obtained from a population epidemiological study involving 1,597 elementary school children from all the schools in the municipality of Teutônia, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil (N = 11) was used. A question referring to postural habits contained in the Back Pain and Body Posture Evaluation Instrument questionnaire was analyzed. The data from the entire population were analyzed and compared with the results obtained from data collected using four distinct sampling procedures (simple random, stratified, clustered, and intentional sampling). The postural habits data from both the population and the four sampling procedures were analyzed using descriptive statistics and a calculated 95% confidence interval. The stratified sampling procedure, followed by the random and clustered procedures, presented the best distribution of school children, most closely approximating the distribution in the entire population. Therefore, the necessity of research about posture, both in the planning and execution stage, is vital. Researchers must pay attention to factors such as sampling method and utilizing an effective sample size.
Keywords: posture, epidemiology, biostatistics, method, population, sample size
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Noll, M., Candotti, C. T., Rosa, B. N. da, & Loss, J. F. (2016). Back pain prevalence and associated factors in children and adolescents: an epidemiological population study. Revista de Saúde Pública, 50(31), 1–10. https://doi.org/10.1590/S1518-8787.2016050006175
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Effectiveness of Counselling on Academic Achievement of Low Achievers
A. Rajkamal, N.Prema
pp. 11-16 | Article Number: ijese.2018.002
Low achievers are the students who are not at satisfactory level in their academics due to several reasons. Proper counselling may help them to achieve to the extent possible. The prime aim of this study is to know whether all the low achievers are slow learners by testing their intelligence level and provide counselling for the low achievers and to make out the impact of counselling on academic achievement of such students. Out of Forty six students, Twenty six of them were identified as low achievers from 7th standard as sample for this experimental research process. Intelligence level of all the low achievers have been measured and noted that 13 out of 26 were not slow learners and they have I.Q ranged between 90 and 105 can be categorized as low achievers with normal level of I.Q. The remaining 13 students were falls under slow learners (backward children) having I.Q ranged between 80 and 89 (below normal-I.Q) can be categorized as slow learners. Counselling had been given by the investigator separately for both the group, and also individually to all the low achievers for a period of 3 months. Pre-test and post-test scores have been analysed and found out that there was a remarkable improvement among low achievers with normal level of I.Q in their academic achievement and comparatively little lesser improvement have also been noted among students with below normal level of I.Q in their academic achievement.
Keywords: Counselling, Low achievers, Slow learners, Intelligence, Academic achievement and I.Q test
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The relevance Knowledge management and Social Capital with Staff Empowerment
Naser Seifollahi, Hossein Rahimi Koloor
pp. 17-29 | Article Number: ijese.2018.003
The aim of this study was to investigate the relationships between Knowledge management and social capital and staff empowerment among education personnel in the city of Kohgiluyeh (Iran). The population in the present descriptive-correlational study consisted of all male education personnel in the city of Kohgiluyeh (n=270) in 2014. Using Jersey-Morgan table and stratified random sampling method, 152 people were selected as the study’s samples. The data were collected through the Staff Empowerment the Knowledge management Questionnaire and the Social Capital Questionnaire. The data were analyzed using Pearson Correlation and Multiple Regression Analysis. The results showed significant relationships between Knowledge management and staff empowerment and between social capital and staff empowerment. Among the components of Knowledge management, externalization and understanding legal and economic issues related to the use of information had respectively the highest (0.575) and the lowest (0.490) predictive power in predicting staff empowerment.
Keywords: Knowledge management, Social Capital, Empowerment
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Constructs and relationships in the study of entrepreneurial intentions in university students
Alejandro Valencia-Arias, Ivan Montoya, Alexandra Montoya
pp. 31-52 | Article Number: ijese.2018.004
The purpose of this article is to examine the main research findings on entrepreneurial intention among university students. Secondary information sources from indexed international journals were utilized. Results show that the model of Entrepreneurial Event and Theory of Planned Behavior are the approaches more used to measure the entrepreneurial intention and the necessity of adequately incorporating entrepreneurial self-efficacy in the entrepreneurial intention analysis in emerging economies. Furthermore, it is recommended adopting and validating the entrepreneurial intention models according to economic, social and educational context in developing countries, allowing the structuring of coherent educational strategies with university students population environment.
Keywords: entrepreneurs, students' attitudes, comparative study, higher education, education and business
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Architectural morphology and decoration elements of Dome-home of Ardabil Jame Mosque
Habib Shahbazi Shiran
pp. 53-67 | Article Number: ijese.2018.005
Ardabil, a land reposed in kindly arms of nature, den of mystery of art, scene of God’s beauties, abode of beloved, covert of sweetheart, spring of waiting and eagerness, source of blessing, harem of descended possibilities and effects, and a vast archaeological square with such precedence as history that is a face came out, presented the clear splendid and bright foregoing, ancient civilization of this habitat, an anonymous and evident treasure and presence sight. Throughout the history, one can trace different towns and villages under various names, several places and even different people in heart of the mountains and wide stream of plains of this field of Iran. A clime with many secrets and coverts that hidden them in the heart like a patient sage; and seeks a man searching reality in order to restate it to him. A land settled on a belt of rich and great heritage; and its historical monuments is sucking and engrossing in terms of volume, vastness, density, sequence, richness, magnificence, modesty, reverence and magical majesty and like a suspension bridge between history and reality and a way towards this or that charmer. Throughout Ardebil County, there are unmatched heritage, cultural splendid effects and product of long term experiences of generations who came one after the other in the stream of history; and indeed it can be considered as a museum and symbol of Iran’s honorable past. Ruins of archaeological campuses and also towns, castles and magnificent domiciles and enchanting art works that left as memorials all over this ancient and historic valley cry greatness, depth of thought and high level of culture and civilization of its residents as live witnesses and entrance onlookers in such a way that they are attracted into their special time and space unintentionally; and feel themselves in a world of brightness, softness and breeziness. The valuable examples of this majesty can be seen in the ruins of a majestic mosque (columned bedchamber in its Deylami shape and with a combination of four roofs and porches in its Seljuk shape that in fact shows accomplished artistic taste and religious belief of their builders. Research method in this study is descriptive- analytic and the tools of data collecting is desk study and empirical that its foundation is field study of archaeological documents.
Keywords: Ardabil, Jame Mosque, bedchamber, Dome home
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Beginning Chemistry Teachers’ Depictions of the Chemistry Content
Krista L. Adams; Julie A. Luft
pp. 69-95 | Article Number: ijese.2018.006
Teaching and learning chemistry involves multiple levels of representation: macroscopic (macro), submicroscopic (submicro), and symbolic. A more recent trend includes the human element, a fourth representation level that contextualizes the chemistry content through real-world applications. This three-year study follows eight beginning chemistry teachers in order to understand how the chemistry content is depicted in the classroom. Teachers need to be engaged in the analysis of key concepts in the content and common representations to recognize instruction should focus on helping students negotiate the representation levels. Support for teachers with examples will help beginning teachers better implement the tetrahedral model and empower beginning teachers to intentionally point out the connections among the different representational levels for students. This may require support to extend beyond the first three years in the classroom.
Keywords: Early Career Science Teacher, Chemistry, Chemistry Tetrahedral Orientation
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