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Implementation of Forest Management Units Policies within Indigenous Agroforestry Systems of Buru Island, Moluccas
Iskar, Marthina Tjoa, Hendrik H.E.S Aponno, & Fransina Latumahina
pp. 325-334 | Article Number: ijese.2019.027
Forest Management Units (FMUs) or KPHs, intended to improve forest management at the ground level therefore, need to adopt policies that can align with, complement and strengthen existing local land-use systems. The purpose of this research is to gain an understanding on how KPH policies, those with direct implications on the ground, can be aligned with indigenous peoples’ traditional agroforestry systems of Buru Indonesia. We used a qualitative descriptive approach based on in-depth interviews with key informants and focus group discussions with indigenous groups of Buru.
Results show that the indigenous peoples of Buru have and continue to follow a set of norms and rules in their forest land management practices: lands are utilized to plant various agricultural commodities that are combined with forest species which are left to grow naturally upon clearing land for agriculture or in establishing gardens. There are also norms and rules in establishing fields and gardens, starting from clearing of the land, to maintenance, to harvest. Every family in villages own fields and gardens, making them a vital part of community life. KPH policy of land use at the site level requires an understanding of how rules of resource use can be made compatible with and support community needs. In the operationalization of KPH, indigenous peoples’ rights to regulate the use of forest land, access to forest land use, and use of forest products need to be accommodated so that these communities continue to benefit from activities on their land.
Keywords: customary agroforestry systems, indigenous people
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Discourse Analysis on the Representation of Women in Western Gurage Proverbs
Tiglu Geza Nisrane, & Shashetu Bayu Tizazu
pp. 335-343 | Article Number: ijese.2019.028
This study was conducted to assess the representation of females in Gurage proverbs. Its main objective was scrutinizing the contexts, in which proverbs represent women and their influences on Gurage women in the community. The proverbs were collected directly from the speakers of Gurage language, bulletins, magazines and books. The collected proverbs were thematically clustered and translated literally into English with a great attempt to keep its original meaning and beauty. Then, they were critically analyzed to observe how the community represents women. The finding showed that there are a large number of proverbs that represents women negatively. They are represented as physically weak, immature, feeble in teamwork, greedy, incapable in trading and in public works. But there are quite a few proverbs that portray the role of women positively such as motivator, supportive, committed and devoted as a mother and wife. Finally, the study recommended that the ways of representing women on the oral traditions in general and proverbs in particular need reconsiderations.
Keywords: proverbs, oral literature, discourse analysis, women, Gurage
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Latent Profile Analysis as a Tool to Describe Students’ Achievement in Entering Medicine Faculty
Helin Semilarski, & Anne Laius
pp. 345-360 | Article Number: ijese.2019.029
One of the main problems in biology education is the need to know which topics in school biology are not understandable to students and which impede them to get good results in university entrance tests. The aim of the current study is to gain an overview of biological knowledge of students, who are intending to continue their education in the faculty of medicine by the end of their gymnasium studies and what are the crucial topics in which they underachieve. Based on these results, it is expected to make theoretically justified decisions what topics of biology should be emphasized in school biology and how to develop the school biology curriculum to meet the needs of competence-based biology education. The sample for this study was formed of 1017 gymnasium graduate students who fulfilled the medicine faculty entrance tests in biology (METIB) in four years (2015–2018). Based on the students’ test results the tasks were categorized into four achievement levels - advanced, high, intermediate and low-performance level. The most difficult topics for students occurred to be molecules and structures and human anatomy and physiology. Research data was collected using four METIBs, which were composed of 50-item multiple-choice questions. The Latent profile analysis of test results enabled to detect three achievement profiles of students – high, moderate and low achievers. In four years of this study, the distribution of students’ test scores was in correspondence with the normal distribution and was also in accordance with the Estonian National Curriculum assessment regulation system, with 15% of gymnasium graduate students achieving the highest score level and being successful in entering the faculty of medicine.
Keywords: entrance test in biology, biology test construction, core topics in biology, test evaluation, assessment results, students’ achievement profiles
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A Nature Reserve Visitors’ Opinions about Nature
Ayla Karataş, & Zeynep Candaş
pp. 361-373 | Article Number: ijese.2019.030
Individuals’ opinions about nature can change according to their education, experiences, and sociocultural backgrounds. Individuals form a society, and their understanding and opinions about nature can serve as important data for informing environmental educational curricula. This study collected data on the opinions of various individuals —who represented different nationalities, genders, educational levels, and age groups— about nature in a nature reserve and research center. An open-ended question, one starting with the word “nature” and ending with an explanation thought was prepared. With this question, participants were able to reflect on their most central opinions about nature. Data were collected from a total of 278 participants who visited a nature reserve, for consideration herein; their response sentences were collected and analyzed under several main themes: “resource”, “existence/life”, “should be protected”, “equilibrium”, “home”, “emotional”, and “sacred”. The most frequently encountered theme was “resource” (31.64%), followed by “should be protected” (25.17%), “equilibrium” (14.74%), “life” (12.94%), “emotional” (6.11%), “sacred” (5.75%), and “home” (3.59%), respectively. One important finding was that most participants (44.58%), despite their gender, nationality, and educational differences, described nature as a “resource”, indicating an anthropocentric perspective. Comparatively, once all the study themes and their related sentences had been analyzed, a further important result was revealed concerning a high percentage of participants who gave responses indicating an ecocentric perspective (55.36%).
Keywords: environmental education, nature protection center, nature opinion
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Design of Biofiltration System for Ammonia Removal from the Storage of Rubber Processed Materials
Leily N. Komariah, Fadhel Zamali, Vincent Low Rance, & Cindi Ramayanti
pp. 375-387 | Article Number: ijese.2019.031
The processing of natural rubber is one of the potential industries that is growing rapidly in Indonesia. In rubber processing stage, number of pollution problems occur, such as unpleasant odor from the chemical and biological process. Ammonia is one of crucial pollutants resulted. According to Decree of Ministry of Environment No. 50/1996, ammonia levels in air must be less than 2 ppm. Biofiltration becomes one of removal techniques that continues to be developed. In this work, an engineering design for reducing ammonia levels from natural rubber processed materials was prepared for capacity of 10 L. The prototype of the system was prepared for industrial applications. Rubber Processed Materials (RPM) sample was stored in a storage and then connected to the line system to the biofilter. The prototype of multibed biofilter was created and successfully tested to reach the target of ammonia removal efficiency of 98%. The filter media used was activated carbon and compost. The nitrifying bacteria was added with a dose of 2% filter volume. Gas from the rubber storage room flowed at the rate of 12 L/min and the optimal ratio of rubber material to volume of storage room is 0.52-1.81.
Keywords: ammonia, biofilter, odor, nitrification, rubber processed materials
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