Special Issue - (2016)
Special Issue - (2015)
Special Issue - (2012)
pp. 2243-2259 | Article Number: ijese.2017.152
Published Online: December 28, 2017
Article Views: 148 | Article Download: 148
The aim of the study was to evaluate the factors affecting physical activity participation of the Turkish people living in the United States (US) since sociocultural adaptaion processes might affect behavior towards physical activities. 514 Turkish people (307 women, 207 men) living in the US participated in the research on average aged 36,72. The data were collected with a 31-item research scale developed from Kaiser-Meyer-Oikin parameter and Barlett Sphericity test, and analyzed with Explanatory Factor Analysis (AFA) test and Cronbach’s Alpha. Comparing the data sets, consisting of two-group variables, independent sample t-test was used whereas for the data sets, consisting of more than two group variables, a one-way ANOVA was used. According to BMI values, a significant difference [F (3,513)=3,581,p<.05] was found in terms of individual factors in physical activity participation. Overall it was found that the Turkish people living in the US have a high motivation to participate in physical activity. However, women compared to men, married individuals compared to singles, and obese individuals compared to average weighted individuals were found to encounter more obsticles participating in physical activities.
Keywords: the United States, BMI, physical activity, obesity, Turkish people
Abraído-Lanza AF, Armbrister AN, Flórez, KR, Aguirre AN, 2006. Toward a theory-driven model of acculturation in public health research. American Journal of Public Health 96: 1342-1346.
Ahmed NU, Smith GL, Flores AM, Pamies RJ, Mason HR, Woods KF, Stain SC, 2005. Racial/ethnic disparity and predictors of leisure-time physical activity among US men. Ethnicity & Disease 15: 40-52.
Alexandris K, Carroll B, 1997. An analysis of leisure constraints based on different recreational sport participation levels: Results from a study in Greece. Leisure Sciences 19: 1– 15.
Arcia E, Skinner M, Bailey D, Correa V, 2001. Models of acculturation and health behaviors among Latino immigrants to the US. Social Science & Medicine 53; 41-53.
Aslan N, 2009. An examination of family leisure and family satisfaction among traditional Turkish families. Journal of Leisure Research 41: 157–176.
Azevedo MR, Araújo CLP, Reichert FF, Siqueira FV, da Silva MC, Hallal PC, 2007. Gender differences in leisure-time physical activity. International Journal of Public Health 52: 8.
Becker AE, Gilman SE, Burwell RA, 2005. Changes in prevalence of overweight and in body image among Fijian women between 1989 and 1998. Obesity 13:110-117.
Beville JM, Umstattd Meyer MR, Usdan SL, Turner LW, Jackson JC, Lian, BE, 2014. Gender differences in college leisure time physical activity: application of the theory of planned behavior and integrated behavioral model. Journal of American College Health 62: 173-184.
Brownson RC, Eyler AA, King AC, Brown DR, Shyu YL, Sallis JF, 2000. Patterns and correlates of physical activity among US women 40 years and older. American Journal of Public Health 90: 264.
Bryman A, Cramer D, 1999. Aggregating variables Exploratory factor analysis. Quantitative Data Analysis with SPSS Release 8 for Windows: For Social Scientists, pp 271-285.
Caperchione CM, Kolt GS, Mummery WK, 2009. Physical activity in culturally and linguistically diverse migrant groups to Western Society. Sports Medicine 39: 167-177.
Caperchione CM, Kolt GS, Tennent R, Mummery WK, 2011. Physical activity behaviours of Culturally and Linguistically Diverse (CALD) women living in Australia: a qualitative study of socio-cultural influences. BMC Public Health 11:26.
Carvajal SC, Hanson CE, Romero AJ, Coyle KK. 2002. Behavioural risk factors and protective factors in adolescents: a comparison of Latinos and non-Latino whites. Ethnicity and Health 7: 181-193.
Cokluk O, Sekercioglu G, Buyukozturk S, 2014. Sosyal bilimler için çok değişkenli istatistik: SPSS ve LISREL Uygulamaları. Pegem Akademi. Ankara.
Crespo CJ, Smit E, Carter-Pokras O, Andersen R, 2001. Acculturation and leisure-time physical inactivity in Mexican American adults: results from NHANES III, 1988–1994. American Journal of Public Health 91: 1254-1257.
De Knop P, Theeboom M, Wittock H, De Martelaer K, 1996. Implications of Islam on Muslim girls' sport participation in Western Europe. Literature review and policy recommendations for sport promotion. Sport, Education and Society 1:147-164.
Dijkshoorn H, Nierkens V, Nicolaou M, 2008. Risk groups for overweight and obesity among Turkish and Moroccan migrants in The Netherlands. Public Health, 122: 625-630.
Ding D, Sallis JF, Kerr J, Lee S, Rosenberg DE, 2011. Neighborhood environment and physical activity among youth: a review. American Journal of Preventive Medicine 41: 442-455.
Durand CP, Andalib M, Dunton GF, Wolch J, Pentz MA, 2011. A systematic review of built environment factors related to physical activity and obesity risk: implications for smart growth urban planning. Obesity Reviews 12: 173–182.
Erkip F, 2009. Leisure in the Turkish context: A preliminary account. World Leisure Journal 51: 275-281.
Evenson KR, Sarmiento OL, Ayala GX, 2004. Acculturation and physical activity among North Carolina Latina immigrants. Social Science & Medicine 59: 2509-2522.
Eyler AE, Wilcox S, Matson-Koffman D, Evenson KR, Sanderson B, Thompson J, Rohm-Young D, 2002. Correlates of physical activity among women from diverse racial/ethnic groups. Journal of Women's Health & Gender-Based Medicine 11: 239-253.
Flegal KM, Carroll MD, Kit BK, Ogden CL, 2012. Prevalence of obesity and trends in the distribution of body mass index among US adults, 1999-2010. The Journal of the American Medical Association 307: 491-497.
Gerber M, Barker D, Pühse U, 2012. Acculturation and physical activity among immigrants: A systematic review. Journal of Public Health 20: 313-341.
Goel MS, McCarthy EP, Phillips RS, Wee CC, 2004. Obesity among US immigrant subgroups by duration of residence. The Journal of the American Medical Association 292: 2860-2867.
Gürbüz B, Henderson KA, 2014. Leisure activity preferences and constraints: perspectives from Turkey. World Leisure Journal 56: 300-316.
Gürbüz B, Özdemir AS, Sarol H, Karaküçük S, 2010. Comparison of recreation behaviours of individuals with regard to demographic variables. Series Physical Education and Sport/Science, Movement and Health, 10:362 – 365.
He XZ, Baker DW, 2005. Differences in leisure‐time, household, and work‐related physical activity by race, ethnicity, and education. Journal of General Internal Medicine 20: 259-266.
Hirooka N, Takedai T, D’Amico F, 2014. Assessing physical activity in daily life, exercise, and sedentary behavior among Japanese moving to westernized environment: a cross-sectional study of Japanese migrants at an urban primary care center in Pittsburgh. Asia Pacific Family Medicine 13: 3.
Hosper K, Klazinga NS, & Stronks K, 2007. Acculturation does not necessarily lead to increased physical activity during leisure time: a cross-sectional study among Turkish young people in the Netherlands. BMC Public Health 7:230.
Jaconelli A, Stephan Y, Canada B, Chapman BP, 2012. Personality and physical functioning among older adults: The moderating role of education. Journals of Gerontology Series B: Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences 68:553-557.
Kaczynski AT, Henderson KA, 2008. Parks and recreation settings and active living: a review of associations with physical activity function and intensity. Journal of Physical Activity and Health 5: 619-632.
Kandula NR, Lauderdale DS, 2005. Leisure time, non-leisure time, and occupational physical activity in Asian Americans. Annals of Epidemiology 15: 257-265.
Koca C, Handerson AK, Asci FH, Bulgu N, 2009. Constraints to Leisure-Time Physical Activity and Negotiation Strategies in Turkish Women. Journal of Leisure Research 41: 225-25.
Kocak F, 2017. Leisure Constraints and Facilitators: Perspectives From Turkey. European Journal of Physical Education and Sport Science 3: 32 -47.
Krejcie RV, Morgan DW, 1970. Determining sample size for research activities. Educational and Psychological Measurement 30:607-610.
Lassetter JH, Callister LC, 2009. The impact of migration on the health of voluntary migrants in western societies: a review of the literature. Journal of Transcultural Nursing 20: 93-104.
Lawton J, Ahmad N, Hanna L, Douglas M, Hallowell N, 2005. ‘I can't do any serious exercise’: barriers to physical activity amongst people of Pakistani and Indian origin with Type 2 diabetes. Health Education Research 21: 43-54.
Lee MM, Wu-Williams A, Whittemore AS, Zheng S, Gallagher R, Teh CZ, Jiao DA, 1994. Comparison of dietary habits, physical activity and body size among Chinese in North America and China. International Journal of Epidemiology 23: 984-990.
Lee SK, Sobal J, Frongillo EA, 2000. Acculturation and Health in Korean Americans. Social Science & Medicine 51:159-173.
Liu JH, Chu YH, Frongillo EA, Probst JC, 2012. Generation and acculturation status are associated with dietary intake and body weight in Mexican American adolescents. The Journal of Nutrition 142: 298-305.
McCormack GR, Shiell A, 2011. In search of causality: a systematic review of the relationship between the built environment and physical activity among adults. International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity 8:125.
Miller K, Staten RR, Rayens MK, Noland M, 2005. Levels and characteristics of physical activity among a college student cohort. American Journal of Health Education 36:215-220.
Nakanishi S, Okubo M, Yoneda M, Jitsuiki K, Yamane K, Kohno N, 2004. A comparison between Japanese-Americans living in Hawaii and Los Angeles and native Japanese: the impact of lifestyle westernization on diabetes mellitus. Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy 58: 571-577.
National Research Council (US); Institute of Medicine (US). Editors: Steven H Woolf and Laudan Aron. U.S. Health in International Perspective, Shorter Lives, Poorer Health, Washington (DC): National Academies Press (US); 2013. ISBN-13: 978-0-309-26414-3ISBN-10: 0-309-26414-6 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK115854/. Accessed 5 November 2017).
O’Driscoll T, Banting LK, Borkoles E, Eime R, Polman R, 2014. A systematic literature review of sport and physical activity participation in culturally and linguistically diverse (CALD) migrant populations. Journal of Immigrant And Minority Health 16: 515-530.
O'dea JA, 2008. Gender, ethnicity, culture and social class influences on childhood obesity among Australian schoolchildren: implications for treatment, prevention and community education. Health & Social Care in the Community 16: 282-290.
OECD- Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development, 2012. Obesity update 2012. http://www.oecd.org/health/49716427.pdf. Accessed 10 May 2015.
OECD-Health-Statistics-2015-Frequently-Requested-Data, 2015. http://www.oecd.org/els/health-systems/oecd-health-statistics-2014-frequently-requested-data.htm, Accessed 10 Jun 2016.
Ogden CL, Carroll MD, Kit BK, Flegal KM, 2014. Prevalence of childhood and adult obesity in the United States, 2011-2012. The Journal of the American Medical Association 311: 806-814.
Perez CE, 2002. Health status and health behaviour among immigrants [Canadian community health survey-2002 annual report]. Health Reports 13:89.
Roberts K, 2011. Is leisure studies “ethnocentric”? If so, does this matter? World Leisure Journal 52: 164–176.
Sam DL, 2006. Acculturation: conceptual background and core components. In: Sam DL, Berry JW, editors. The Cambridge handbook of acculturation psychology. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Schwartz SJ, Unger JB, Zamboanga BL, Szapocznik J, 2010. Rethinking the concept of acculturation: implications for theory and research. American Psychologist 65: 237.
Shaw S M, Henderson KA, 2005. Gender analysis and leisure constraints: An uneasy alliance. In E. L. Jackson (Ed.), Constraints to leisure (pp. 23–34). State College, PA: Venture Publishing.
Sobal J, 2001. Social and Cultural Influences on Obesity International Textbook of Obesity. Edited by Per Bjorntorp. John Wiley & Sons Ltd. Print ISBNs: 0-471-988707 (Hardback); 0-470-846739 (Electronic) Cornell University, Ithaca, New York, USA.
Sundquist J, Winkleby M, 2000. Country of birth, acculturation status and abdominal obesity in a national sample of Mexican–American women and men. International Journal of Epidemiology 29: 470-477.
Sundquist K, Eriksson U, Kawakami N, Skog L, Ohlsson H, Arvidsson D, 2011. Neighborhood walkability, physical activity, and walking behavior: the Swedish Neighborhood and Physical Activity (SNAP) study. Social Science & Medicine 72: 1266-1273.
TBSA-Türkiye Beslenme ve Sağlık Araştırması 2010 Raporu, 2014. T.C. Sağlık Bakanlığı Yayını No:931, Ankara, ISBN: 978-975-590-483-2.
Tekin A, 2010. The influence of religious and socio-cultural variables on the participation of female university students in leisure activities. World Applied Sciences Journal 9:1286-1293.
Tremblay MS, Bryan SN, Pérez CE, Ardern CI, Katzmarzyk PT, 2006. Physical activity and immigrant status: evidence from the Canadian Community Health Survey. Canadian Journal Of Public Health/Revue Canadienne De Sante'e Publique 97:277-282.
Trost SG, Owen N, Bauman AE, Sallis JF, Brown W, 2002. Correlates of adults’ participation in physical activity: review and update. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise 34:1996-2001.
Van Dyck D, Cardon G, Deforche B, Sallis JF, Owen N, De Bourdeaudhuij I, 2010. Neighborhood SES and walkability are related to physical activity behavior in Belgian adults. Preventive Medicine 50: 74-79.
Walker GJ, Deng J, Dieser RB, 2005. Culture, self-construal, and leisure theory and practice. Journal of Leisure Research, 37(1), 77–99.
Walker GJ, Jackson EL, Deng J, 2007. Culture and leisure constraints: A comparison of Canadian and Mainland Chinese university students. Journal of Leisure Research 39: 567–590.
Walseth K, Fasting K, 2003. Islam’s view on physical activity and sport: Egyptian women interpreting Islam. International Review for the Sociology of Sport 38: 45-60.